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2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 28 pages || Words: 6844 words || 
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1. Leshner, Glenn., Vultee, Frederick. and Bolls, Paul. "When a Fear Appeal Isn’t a Fear Appeal: The Effects of Graphic Antitobacco Messages" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p171296_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The current study experimentally tested two types of common antitobacco television ad messages—those that contained a health threat about tobacco use (fear) and those that contained a negative graphic image (disgust)—on how viewers processed these messages. Informed by the Limited Capacity Model of Motivated Mediated Message Processing (LC4MP, A. Lang, 2006), we hypothesized that how well a message was processed depended on the type of emotional message content. In a 2 x 2 within-subjects experiment, participants watched antitobacco television ads that varied in the amount of fear and disgust content. The results of this study suggest that both fear and disgust content in antitobacco television ads have significant effects on resources allocated to encoding the messages and on recognition memory. Recognition was most accurate for messages that were high in fear but low in disgust. Messages that contained disgust were recognized faster than messages without, but having a disgusting image in a high-fear message decreased recognition latency. Secondary task reaction times indicated that the combination of fear and disgust reduced resources available for encoding compared to messages high in disgust but low in fear. The results are discussed in the context of coactivation theory and recommendations about message construction are offered to health campaign designers.

2018 - MPSA Annual Conference Words: 15 words || 
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2. Rogol, Natalie. "Appealing to the President's Interests: How the Solicitor General Decides which Cases to Appeal" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual Conference, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 05, 2018 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1350794_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Solicitor Generals are more likely to appeal cases in issue areas important to the president.

2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 33 pages || Words: 10256 words || 
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3. Sulkin, Tracy., Moriarty, Cortney. and Hefner, Veronica. "Shoring Up the Base or Broadening Appeal?: Comparing Candidates' Issue Appeals in Campaign Websites and Television Ads" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p41631_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: We explore differences in House candidates’ campaign agendas across their websites and televised ads, comparing the size and scope of their on- and off-line agendas, their patterns of issue ownership and issue trespassing, and the nature of their issue claims. Our results, based on a sample of 132 candidates in the 2000 election, indicate that web and ad agendas are similar in a number of ways, but that differences do exist across the venues in the issues that candidates discuss and the ways in which they discuss them. These differences have important theoretical implications for our understanding of candidate behavior and campaign effects, as well as important practical implications for political communication researchers choosing venues for study.

2017 - ICA's 67th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Schmuck, Desiree. "Effects of Economic and Symbolic Threat Appeals in Right-Wing Populist Advertising on Anti-Immigration Attitudes: The Impact of Visual and Verbal Appeals" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 67th Annual Conference, Hilton San Diego Bayfront, San Diego, USA, May 24, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1232704_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study investigates how symbolic and economic threat appeals in right-wing populist advertisements influence individuals’ attitudes toward immigration and tests the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions of these effects. Findings of an experimental study with a quota sample of 471 participants reveal that, overall, symbolic threat appeals exert stronger effects on anti-immigration attitudes than economic threat appeals. Textual symbolic threat appeals affected anti-immigration attitudes of lower-educated voters by evoking intergroup anxiety and negative stereotypes. The additional presence of a stereotypical image amplifies the effects of the symbolic threat appeal and activates perceived symbolic threats, intergroup anxiety, and negative stereotypes among all individuals regardless of their education level, which resulted in stronger resentments toward immigration. Economic text appeals only affected anti-immigrant attitudes when combined with a stereotypic image via the activation of negative stereotypes. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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