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2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 34 pages || Words: 8698 words || 
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1. O'Donnell, Amy., Lutfey, Karen., Marceau, Lisa. and McKinlay, John. "Integrating Methods without Making Qualitative Approaches the Handmaidens of Quantitative Approaches: Using Focus Groups to Improve the Validity of Survey Research" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 11, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2018-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p103385_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This manuscript demonstrates how qualitative methods can form a foundation for quantitative research by improving instrument validity. In order to test terminology, applicability and comprehension of a quantitative questionnaire for doctors in the United States and United Kingdom, physician focus groups were conducted in both countries. The focus group questions were organized around the experiment including (1) “patient” validity, (2) population accessibility, (3) level of remuneration, (4) appropriate endorsement figure, and (5) question comprehension. Questions were amended and eliminated, and logistics were strengthened based on the groups’ comments. Focus group data collected during instrument development and fieldwork planning streamlined our processes and helped improve validity for the overall study. Beyond simply adding a qualitative component to an already free-standing quantitative methodology, we capitalized on focus groups as a methodology resulting in increased validity, and used that resource to complement the high reliability and generalizability achieved with a survey.

2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 11 pages || Words: 6687 words || 
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2. Segell, Glen. "The EU Approach to Arms Control: Does it Differ from the American Approach?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 21, 2004 <Not Available>. 2018-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p73925_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Non-proliferation in 2004 is characterised by: 1) the end of Cold War arms control diplomacy dominated by treaties negotiated between the two super-powers 2) residual Cold War WMD stockpiles requiring agreement 3) the advent of rogue states and global terrorism leading to American pre-emptive armed force to disarm them 4) the common approach by 25 EU member states in determining regional and global agenda. The nadir of these features gives necessity to build up existing literature to analyse and critic trans-Atlantic consensus and differences. Specific issues prevail such as Treaty negotiation (CBW, BWC, NPT, CFE), relations with Russia and other organisations (NATO, OSCE), the role of EURATOM and specific proposals (Dayton Accords, ESDP/CSFP, PSI).

2009 - ISA - ABRI JOINT INTERNATIONAL MEETING Pages: 7 pages || Words: 2646 words || 
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3. Rezende, Lucas. "The Need for New approaches for Teaching International Relations theories to BA Students: A Cinematic approach" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA - ABRI JOINT INTERNATIONAL MEETING, Pontifical Catholic University, Rio de Janeiro Campus (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Jul 22, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/X-MSDOWNLOAD>. 2018-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p381388_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Since BA pupils often come straight from High School and aren't mostly used to the academic approach, some of them may not care much for learning theory, which is usually taught on their first semesters at college. This paper aims to show how important it is to use new approaches in teaching theory, such as a cinematic one. We will show how the profile of pupils have changed in the latest years and how teachers should adjust to them, in order to show them the importance of theories for their professional life.

2010 - Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners Words: 36 words || 
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4. Suzuki, Shigehiro. "Institutional Arrangement of the United Nations for the Protection of and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons “Collaborative Approach” and Alternative Approaches" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel, The Loews New Orleans Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Feb 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2018-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p415483_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper draws on organizational theory to analyze bureaucratic politics within the United Nations. Taking the view of the international organizations as autonomous actors, it examines how different agencies of the same organization interact with each

2010 - The Law and Society Association Words: 446 words || 
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5. Wragg, Paul. "A Common Approach to the Problem of Commercial "Free Speech"? Assessing the UK and US Approach to the Constitutional Protection of Commercial Expression" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Renaissance Chicago Hotel, Chicago, IL, May 27, 2010 <Not Available>. 2018-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p407204_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The question of whether commercial expression is or should be treated as a form of free speech seems to be a persistent problem, both in theory and practice. The suggestion that it should be protected by the First Amendment can be traced back to Martin Redish’s influential 1971 paper, ‘The First Amendment in the Marketplace’ in the George Washington Law Review and the arguments advanced by Redish – along with those made by Steven Shiffrin, Alex Kozinski and Stuart Banner, Robert Post et al – provide a range of compelling reasons why commercial speech ought to be treated seriously. However, the inclusion of commercial speech within the realm of coverage is not without its detractors, notably Eric Barendt in the UK, the leading UK expert on free speech.

Yet, although both the US and UK judiciary seem to have embraced the idea that the constitutional guarantee of free speech is capable of protecting commercial speech, there remains a guardedness to the extent to which such speech is protected and, therefore, an uncertainty about when and, indeed, why it should be so protected. For example, recently in the UK the Court of Appeal referred to the ‘important issues of free speech’ that comparative advertising raises, with only a tantalizing reference to what these ‘important issues’ are and how those issues compare with the values at stake where political speech is concerned. The indication that commercial speech may serve the same value as political speech – by providing information of importance to the public at large – invokes those arguments that Redish, Shiffrin and Post et al raised and also poses the question of whether, in such circumstances, commercial speech ought to be afforded the same level of protection as political speech.

Furthermore, although sharing a common theme – that commercial speech may be protected on account of furthering a public interest – the UK and US courts’ approach to the protection of commercial speech seems to differ. In particular, in the US there seems to be greater scrutiny of whether the speech does benefit the public interest than in the UK.

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the similarities and differences in approach to the question in order to discern what lessons can be learned about the problem of free speech and, indeed, what normative judgments can be made about commercial expression in both jurisdictions. In doing so, this paper will touch upon the broader issue of whether the US and UK can approach the problem in the same way because of differences in the way that the right to freedom of speech is realised in the US compared to the UK.

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