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2005 - International Studies Association Words: 407 words || 
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1. Battah, Abdalla. "Anti-Americanism in Conservative Saudi Arabia and Jordan" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p70962_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Anti-Americanism has in the last decade or so been on the rise throughout the world, including Western Europe. Nowhere, however, has anti-Americanism been more salient and intense than in the Arab Middle East. It is found not only in states such as Syria, Iraq (during and after Saddam's regime), and Sudan, but curiously in pro-American states, including Saudi Arabia and Jordan. Anti-Americanism is not so formidable as to stop America's military thrust in the short term, but it has a significant long term potential in frustrating Washington's ambitious plans for the region. If winning the peace in Iraq (and elsewhere in the region) is ultimately what matters, then understanding the roots of anti-Americanism and winning the hearts and minds of the Arabs become imperative for US policymakers. Our objective in this paper is to provide an analysis of the root causes of anti-Americanism in Saudi Arabia and Jordan, United States's closest Arab allies. We will consider two alternative perspectives generally employed to explain anti-Americanism in the Middle East. I will refer to the first as identity/culture-based perspective (e.g., explanations that focus on the religious and cultural divide between Arab/Islamic world and the West) and the second as interest-based perspective (e.g., explanations that focus on Arab-Israel conflict, oil, and other interests). This paper rejects the extreme presentation of the cultural divide in the identity/culture perspective, yet it acknowledges that a long history of rivalry between the Christian and Islamic worlds as well as more recent European and American hegemony in the region have created an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust that is ever present in interactions of both sides. The paper gives greater credence to the clash of interests (as opposed to clash of culture), but it does not view the interests of the two sides as diametrically opposed. America's policies in the region, we believe, are less a product of its greed and aggressive motives than of what might be called great power insecurities, and Arab world's authoritarianism and instability are a threat not just to the region but to world order at large. While each of those perspectives has merits and advances our understanding of the nature and dynamics of the relationship between the US and the Arab Middle East, neither alone fully accounts for the problem of anti-Americanism. A more satisfying approach, we will argue, is one that combines elements of both perspectives.

2008 - MPSA Annual National Conference Words: 270 words || 
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2. Kim, Sun-Hyoung. "Petro-Nationalism and the Oil Prices: Saudi Arabia and Russia, 1973-2003" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Palmer House Hotel, Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 03, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p267968_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper will focus on the ways petro-nationalism of oil-producing countries Saudi Arabia and Russia has revealed itself and its effect on the international oil prices in the period from the First Oil Crisis in 1973 to the outbreak of the War on Iraq in 2003. By choosing these two countries as cases, this paper will attempt to evaluate the effects of collective action and political regimes on the international oil market.

During the period discussed in this paper, the international oil prices have been profoundly affected by the petro-nationalistic policies of the oil-producing countries. However, in turn, these policies have also been affected by the changing environments of the international oil market and political system. In the case of Saudi Arabia, the country’s pursuit of self-interest resulted in the various oil crisis beginning in 1973. But it could not have such maximized effects on the international oil market without the collective actions of the OPEC, which it leads. In the case of Russia, although the country was the most important alternative to Middle East oil to the West during the Cold War, it was only after the collapse of the communist regime and the country’s blend into the international capitalist market system that it was able to exercise its petro-nationalistic policies to a substantial effect.

Thus, it can be concluded that in the globalized oil market, the petro-nationalistic tendencies of single oil-producing countries must take into account, and work with, the international system, even in the seller’s market. In that regard, both oil-producing and –importing countries may be able to find appropriate resolution to cooperation.

2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Words: 42 words || 
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3. Jones, Toby. "Saudi Arabia's Sectarian Turn: 1979 and the Origins of Modern Sectarianism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p311455_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In November 1979 thousands of Saudi Shiis took to the streets in violent protest against Saudi oppression. The uprising was the result of decades of disillusion with the Shi'is' status as second-class citizens in the kingdom. Inspired in part by Iran's re

2008 - SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION SOCIETY Words: 210 words || 
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4. Hussain, Ghulam. "Effect of Water Salinity on Survival and Growth of Landscape Trees in Saudi Arabia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION SOCIETY, TBA, Tucson, Arizona, Jul 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p235317_index.html>
Publication Type: Oral Presentation
Abstract: A greenhouse experiment determined the effect of water salinity on the survival and growth of landscape trees and soil properties. The survival period of trees decreased significantly with increase in soil salinity resulted from irrigation water salinity. The survival period of Acacia nilotica and Prosopis juliflora was significantly more than Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Parkinsonia aculeate under different water salinity levels and soil types. The total biomass decreased significantly with increase in soil salinity. Prosopis juliflora tolerated soil salinity (ECe) up to 39.5 dS m-1 and Acacia nilotica up to 44.9 (ECe) with water salinity of 12.80 dS m-1; Parkinsonia aculeate up to 29.26 (ECe) with water salinity of 6.45 dS m-1 and Eucalyptus camaldulensis up to 34.3 (ECe) with water salinity of 6.45 dS m-1. The salinity build up was significantly more in light than heavy soil. A strong correlation (r2) was found between soil salinity and plant biomass. The experiment proved the sequence in salt tolerance for different landscape trees as Prosopis and Acacia > Parrkinsonia > Eucalyptus. In conclusion, Acacia nilotica and Prospis juliflora should be cultivated as landscape trees for controlling desertification, establishing shelterbelts around oil refineries and in sand stabilization projects.
Keywords: Water salinity, Tree survival and growth, Biomass yield, soil salinity, salt tolerance, leaching requirement

2010 - Northeastern Political Science Association Words: 180 words || 
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5. Haskollar, Elcin. "Democracy and Islam -- Drawing on the Insights of a Post-Modern Puzzle In Conflict Resolution Studies: The Cases of Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Iran and Turkey" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Omni Parker House, Boston, MA, Nov 11, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p439416_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines the highly debated roadblocks against the development of democracy in the Islamic world. First, thematic issues are examined by means of an empirical analysis in order to determine whether Islam as a religion presents an obstruction to democracy. The degree of their relationship is tested based upon an analysis of democratic peace theory along with its relationship to Zakaria’s notion of illiberal democracy and Huntington’s clash of civilization theory. Then, specific factors accountable for the poor levels of democracy are highlighted within appropriate historical, economical, and socio-political contexts based on three indices. This paper illustrates the connection between these indices and various local factors contributing to various levels of democracy in different national and regional contexts in a case study. This paper concludes that the presence of majority Muslim populations in most Middle Eastern states fails to offer a reasonable and persuasive explanation as to why democracy has failed in the Islamic world. Rather, a combination of historical, socio-economic, and political factors -- not solely Islam as a religion-- explains the absence of democracy in the region.

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