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2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 132 words || 
1. Seo, Chunghyeon. "Schools at Urban Areas Have Higher Gang-Related Crime Rates than Schools at Other Areas?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 17, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-05-19 <>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Schools are important institutions because they are responsible for the socialization as well as the education of future generations (Leffler et al., 2001). Most researchers have studied urban or urban school crimes because they have assumed that urban areas have higher crime rates than rural areas. However, recent research shows that major cities are safer place than rural areas (Myers et al., 2013). The aim of this study is testing the relationship between gang-related crime and school’s urbanicity by using 2004 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). The result shows that schools located in urban areas have higher gang-related crime rates than schools located in other areas (urban fringe, town and rural). Also, the results are the same even when controlling other variables such as characteristics, practices, and community of school.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 60 pages || Words: 18388 words || 
2. Marten, Kimberly. "The Effects of External Economic Stimuli on Ungoverned Areas: The Pashtun Tribal Areas of Pakistan" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-19 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: I will examine four historical cases in the FATA region where money came in from outside sources, to see what the political and social effects of that money seem to have been: (1) attempts by British colonial authorities from 1879 through World War II to win the support of the Pashtun tribes for the presence of Indian military forces in the territories, at a time when the tribal belt was seen as a buffer zone between British India and outside threats (ranging from power plays by the Afghan Amir and the Russian empire at the start of this period, to Nazi Germany at its close); (2) attempts by Pakistani authorities in the early 1970s to provide development assistance to FATA, to head off local sentiments in favor of a separatist “Pashtunistan” in the wake of Bangladesh’s successful 1971 independence drive; (3) the attraction of jobs in the Persian Gulf for Pashtun migrants during the mid- to late-1970s oil boom, which provided an outside income stream to some of the region’s poorest inhabitants; and (4) the infusion of money and weapons into the area to support Islamist mujahadin following the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, under the aegis of the Pakistani government, Saudi Arabia, and the United States.

2008 - International Congress for Conservation Biology Words: 216 words || 
3. Jonas, Zuziwe., Holness, Stephen. and Nel, Jeanne. "IDENTIFICATION OF NATIONAL PRIORITY AREAS FOR PROTECTED AREA EXPANSION IN SOUTH AFRICA" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress for Conservation Biology, Convention Center, Chattanooga, TN, Jul 10, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-05-19 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Protected areas are the cornerstones of national and international conservation strategies. The establishment and management of a representative and effectively managed system of protected areas is a key strategic approach in the conservation of South Africa’s biodiversity. Using systematic biodiversity planning tools, the National Protected Area Expansion Strategy identifies priority areas where protected area expansion would contribute to meet national biodiversity targets. The National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment 2004 demonstrated that the current National Protected Area System does not adequately conserve a representative sample of the country’s biodiversity or maintain key ecological processes across the landscape and seascape. The study aimed at identifying national priority areas for protected area (PA) expansion including both stewardship and creation of large formal protected areas. In the current National Protected Area System, the majority of biomes and marine bioregions are not adequately protected. As a result only four of 11 biomes have more than their protected area target represented in the National Protected Area System. The identified priority areas for expansion have a total area of 122 782 km2. This represents 9.7% of the total surface area of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. The spatial assessment identified 42 priority areas with a total area of 16 925 700 ha, of which 12 278 200 ha are priority areas for PA expansion.

2013 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 195 words || 
4. Xie, Min. "Area Differences and Time Trends in Crime Reporting: Comparing New York with Other Metropolitan Areas" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-05-19 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: Police measures of crime are shaped by victims’ decisions to notify the police. To obtain a better understanding of US crime trends, this study uses the National Crime Victimization Survey to examine geographic differences and temporal trends in crime reporting in New York and other metropolitan areas for the period 1979-2004. We find that net of crime characteristics and survey methodology, the New York metropolitan area showed fewer increases in crime reporting than did other metropolitan areas. These divergent trends suggest that the real differences in the drop of nonlethal violence between New York and other areas may have been smaller than those indicated by police-based crime statistics. We also find that from the early 1990s to 2004, New York showed a sharp decrease in the likelihood of victims perceiving that “police wouldn’t help.” This trend suggests that police reforms in New York City have not resulted in more victims using police-related reasons to explain their non-reporting behavior. Instead, researchers need to develop a broader theoretical framework (not an exclusive focus on police actions) to understand how police- and non-police-related factors may explain the geographic variation in the trends of reporting observed in this study.

2008 - International Congress for Conservation Biology Words: 206 words || 
5. Weigand, Jr., Ronaldo., Oliveira e Silva, Daniela., Pereira, Tatiany., Silva, Danielle., Araujo, Marcos., Souza, Kátia., Trazzi, Eduardo., Leite, Fábio. and Andrade, Rejane. "INNOVATION IN PROTECTED AREA SYSTEM MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF THE AMAZON REGION PROTECTED AREAS (ARPA) PROGRAM, BRAZIL" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress for Conservation Biology, Convention Center, Chattanooga, TN, Jul 10, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-05-19 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: In Brazil, implementing the Amazon Region Protected Areas (ARPA) Program, the largest effort to declare and implement protected areas in tropical forests requires innovation (institutional, managerial), strategic choice of conservation priorities, an effective monitoring system, and strong partnership between governments, NGOs, bilateral and multilateral institutions, and the private sector. A Conservation and Investment Strategy considers ecological representativeness. The financial model articulates with a new tool for evaluation of PA systems, created from an adaptation of GEF’s tracking tool: the Protected Areas Evaluation Tool (PAET). An online system is used for PAET implementation: ARPA’s Coordination and Management Integrated System (SISARPA, in Portuguese). PAs use PAET for planning of their main targets, and the government agencies responsible for PA system coordination at the federal and state levels use SISARPA for PA supervision. Through SISARPA, PAs create workplans for the support they need from ARPA. SISARPA’s public interface provides transparency. Through these innovations, inevitable conflicts have been negotiated and resolved. ARPA was created by the Brazilian government and have been implemented since 2003 through a partnership with donors (GEF/The World Bank, KfW, and WWF), seven state governments, and the Brazilian Biodiversity Fund (Funbio). Over 32 million hectares of PAs have been implemented by ARPA in the last five years.

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