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2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Words: 412 words || 
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1. Sheffer, Gabriel. "Under the Shadow of a Nuclear Iran : Israel's Arms Control Policy and the Prospects of Arms Control Regimes in the Middle East" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p178934_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Israel's activities in the Arms Control (AC) and Disarmament field can be roughly divided into two periods. In the first period, from 1963 to the 1980s, Israel's policy was characterized by alienation and deep suspicion regarding any initiative targeted at limiting the spread of certain weapons or their control. A change in this attitude first became apparent following Israel?s 1981 strike against Iraq?s Osirak nuclear reactor due to the need to repel harsh international criticism. Yet, total transformation of Israeli policy would have to wait another decade. During the 1991 Madrid Conference, the ACRS working group intensified awareness of the significance of AC and Disarmament. By then, Israel's political leadership had fully recognized the need to integrate AC regimes and to clearly present Israel's stance in international forums.Israel's policy consequently shifted from alienation and passivity to activism on the conceptual and technical level. Israel has, however, become a global key player for two additional reasons: (a) Obstruction capabilities ?the putative capabilities of this ?6th nuclear power? in all realms of armament, arms production and supply to the global market give Israel the power to render almost any treaty ineffective; and (b) The Middle East linkage approach ? Although dyadic situations where one state's adherence to an AC arrangement is conditional on the adherence of another are quite common, in the case of Israel, one state?s adherence could become (or is) a necessary condition for the adherence of several other states to the same treaty. The official Arab's stance regarding the CWC is, of course, a pristine example to this.Notwithstanding Israel's growing importance in this area and as opposed to the extensive literature focusing on its policy of nuclear opacity, a marked lacuna can be observed in the literature regarding Israel's policy in other arenas of AC and Disarmament. Moreover, even regarding its policy in the nuclear filed, the recent developments regarding Iran raise the question: what would be the implications if Iran got the bomb? Hence, the research goals are twofold. In the first stage, we shall map and analyze Israel?s AC steps in general. In the second stage, we shall trace possible implications of a nuclear Iran as well as Arab perceptions on these issues and, based on our findings, propose some feasible alternatives to mitigate the current predicament. Despite Israel?s continuous stance on the NPT issue, the regional developments ? primarily those concerning Iran and Iraq, may offer Israel and its neighbors new opportunities to resolve the current various deadlocks.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 167 words || 
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2. Susumu, Suzuki. "Arms, Internal Armed Conflicts, and Mass Killings" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p253625_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Despite the growth of policy demands, relatively little attention is devoted to systematic investigation of the role of arms in internal armed conflicts and intentional mass killings. To fill the gap between the policy and scholarly community, the study presents a basis for policy evaluation and further research by exploring the patterns of the relationship among government ‘s major arms acquisitions, internal armed conflicts, and intentional mass killings by governments. Employing publicly available data on government major arms acquisitions, internal armed conflicts, and intentional mass killings, respectively, in 100 post-colonial states between 1956 and 1998, this inquiry examines a set of hypotheses derived from the existing scholarly literature and tests them by using statistical analyses. The findings show that major arms acquisitions and intensity of internal armed conflicts are positively associated with mass killing involvement. Considering the combinations of government arms acquisition with four intensity levels of internal armed conflicts, this investigation indicates that there are complex patterns of the occurrence of intentional mass killings by governments.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Words: 195 words || 
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3. Kirisci, Mustafa. "The Effect Of Arms Embargoes on Ongoing Armed Conflic:CanThey Really Reduce Conflict Duration?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 07, 2016 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1050869_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Arms embargoes have not been adequately examined in terms of their effects on conflict duration. Prior research on arms embargoes has generally investigated the effect of arms embargoes on arms import/export practices and violations in arms embargoes, but it says little about the effect on conflict duration. This paper attempts to fill this gap and aims to investigate the effect of arms embargoes on conflict duration throughout the world. More precisely, the purpose of the paper is to understand how arms embargoes affect the duration of both internal and interstate conflicts. Given the theoretical framework, the main hypothesis of the paper is arms embargoes will have no reduction effect on conflict duration when arms transfer and region are controlled. This hypothesis is tested by using OLS regression. Results indicate that arms embargoes have no effect on both internal and interstate conflict duration. Another crucial result is that both small and major arms transfers made by the embargoed countries during the internal conflict increase the duration of the conflict, but no effect on interstate conflict duration. The final part concludes and provide explanations on what these results imply for finishing the conflict and bringing the peace.

2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Words: 38 words || 
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4. Kelle, Alexander. "Bioethics Meets Arms Control – Is There a Need for a Bio-Ethically Informed Approach to Biological Weapons Arms Control?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p310840_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Efforts to control biological weapons (BW) always had to contend with the fact that scientific and technological advances might lead to new ways to produce biological warfare agents or to genetically modify existing pathogens. Now, the academic sub-field

2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Pages: 12 pages || Words: 5580 words || 
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5. Stevenson, Christianya. "Arms Trade Treaty: The Right Momentum, Timing and Place for Arms Transfer Controls? An NGO Perspective" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p311508_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: International criteria to regulate the trade in conventional weapons do not yet exit, which provides the framework for the current discussions toward an Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). Data shows that a high number of arms transfers commence as legal trade and end up in the gray or black markets. Further research reveals that irresponsible arms transfers foment violent conflicts, perpetuate poverty and underdevelopment, and contribute to countless violations of human rights and humanitarian law. Although important steps have been taken toward regulating the illicit trade in weapons, there is no normative framework for controlling the licit trade of arms.

This paper briefly analyzes the progression of the ATT debate to date in the United Nations, against the backdrop of contemporary national and global security interests. It provides a brief history of and recent momentum for arms transfer controls, and details the international initiative that has lead in the promotion of an ATT which attempts to codify states’ existing responsibilities under international law. Based on the Ottawa Convention, the paper introduces how this initiative has provided a central unifying goal that helps sustain an active and diverse NGO network in order to work with states and promote adherence of responsible weapons transfers. It further explores the role of various complementary regional agreements and building blocks that have emerged, particularly by southern states. Finally, the paper explores the feasibility, scope, and parameters of an ATT, challenges faced, and implications of negotiations for international controls on conventional weapons.

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