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2017 - 41st Annual National Council for Black Studies Conference Words: 253 words || 
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1. Blackman, Dexter. "The Negro Athlete and Victory”: Athletics and Athletes as Advancement Strategies in Black America, 1890s-1930s" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 41st Annual National Council for Black Studies Conference, Hilton Houston Post Oak, Houston, TX, <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1259238_index.html>
Publication Type: Panelist Abstract
Abstract: The article examines the historical development and debates concerning the use of athletics and athletes as an advancement strategy in black America. The existing scholarship suggests that the strategy emerged fully conceived and remained unchallenged in black America since the advent of mass spectator sports in the late 1800s and is indicative of the hegemony of the contemporary social convention that sports have invariably contributed to the black struggle for equality. The article challenges those assertions by demonstrating that like other black advancement strategies, the strategy evolved, was contested by other advancement strategies, and was shaped by developments both internal and external to black Americans. The two most significant factors that influenced the strategy were the traditional black advancement assertion that the cultivation of character was a prerequisite for blacks to earn respectability as citizens and the nationalism stimulated among Americans by early twentieth century geopolitics served as another significant stimulus. The two commingled throughout the twentieth century to respectively influence, reshape, and combat the strategy in black America, until the geopolitics of the late 1930s created the conditions for the strategy to ascend into a social convention. Despite its ensuing pervasiveness, however, the burgeoning convention remained contested by blacks, especially black educators at HBCUs, who argued that athletic accomplishments did not demonstrate the character required for blacks to earn acknowledgement as citizens, and consequently, they expressed ambivalence about athletics as a principal advancement strategy. Recognizing the continued ideological contestation is critical to adequately using sports studies as a means of investigating society.

2015 - ASALH Centennial Annual Meeting and Conference Words: 216 words || 
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2. Blackman, Dexter. "“The Negro Athlete and Victory”: Athletics and Athletes as Advancement Strategies in Black America, 1890s-1930s" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASALH Centennial Annual Meeting and Conference, Sheraton Atlanta Hotel, Atlanta, GA, <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1040705_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: This paper examines the development of the use of athletic achievements and athletes as an advancement strategy in black America. The existing scholarship suggests the strategy emerged fully conceived and remained unchallenged in black America since the advent of mass spectator sports in the late 1800s. The paper challenges the existing scholarship by demonstrating that like most blacks advancement strategies, the strategy evolved, was contested by other advancement ideals, and was shaped by developments both internal and external to black Americans. Rather than emerging complete, the strategy of athletic accomplishments and athletes was shaped by traditional black advancement’s assertion that the cultivation of moral character was a prerequisite for blacks to earn respectability as citizens. Additionally, the nationalism stimulated among Americans by early twentieth century geopolitical tensions served as another significant stimulus. The two commingled throughout the early decades of the twentieth century to respectively influence, reshape, and combat the strategy in black America, until the geopolitics of the late 1930s created the conditions for the strategy to ascend into a social convention. Despite its ensuing pervasiveness, however, the burgeoning convention remained contested by black intellectuals who argued that athletic accomplishments did not demonstrate the character required for blacks to earn acknowledgement as citizens, and consequently, they expressed ambivalence about athletics as a principal advancement strategy.

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