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2006 - American Political Science Association Words: unavailable || 
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1. Nincic, Miroslav. "Reframing the Trans-Atlantic Rift" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p153280_index.html>
Publication Type: Proceeding

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 18 pages || Words: 10238 words || 
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2. Rynning, Sten. "NATO Encounters the Broader Middle East: Will the Atlantic Alliance Survive, and if so, How?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p99239_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: It has become almost commonplace to claim that NATO is a relic of the past, geared to large-scale inter-state war and unsuited for the new era of low-intensity, asymmetrical threats, as they appear especially in the Middle East. The claim is exaggerated. This paper undertakes an investigation of NATO's history of engagement with the Middle East in order to map out how NATO has balanced conflicting pressures - internal dissent and difficult threats. These conflicting pressures are not new, and the question is whether NATO today as in the past can balance them and continue its existence and engagement. The paper argues that NATO can do so, but, as in the past, only if the engagement is flexible and ad hoc, as opposed to collective and formalized.

2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 263 words || 
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3. Tomlins, Christopher. "A Constellation of Eras: Materialist History, the Atlantic World, and Law" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 25, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p173657_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In this paper I offer a critique of contemporary professional history, particularly its fetishization of “sociological” complexity, and an alternative. The métier of contemporary professional history is the placement of an ever-expanding array of subjects in relation to each other within a continuum called historical time. To “historicize” a subject is to locate it in its appropriate historical-temporal context. Current historical practice celebrates expansion, for expansion enriches the continuum of historical time by producing an ever-greater density of relations among historically-located subjects. My paper proposes a distinct conceptualization of history, predicated on a retrieval of Walter Benjamin’s theorization of historical materialism, which proposes a theory of history radically distinct from historians’ current concerns. I explain the three components of Benjamin’s theory - the discontinuity of historical time, the destructive power of the working class, and the tradition of the oppressed – and show how each induces a fundamental upheaval in received conceptions of memory and historical time that feeds a conception of historical practice as “constellation” – the galvanic seizure upon the past by the present at an instant of recognition – that creates new knowledge for the present - “the time of the now.” I use four moments from the history of class, colonization and settlement in the Atlantic world to suggest the potency of “constellation.” By pointing to how law is implicated in the constitution of each moment I draw “the legal” into the orbit of Benjamin’s historical materialism and away from the discourse of historical complexity by which it has been so thoroughly penetrated.

2007 - The American Studies Association Words: 486 words || 
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4. Blum, Hester. "*Israel Potter* and the Atlantic World" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The American Studies Association, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Oct 11, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p185439_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: My paper addresses the odd ideological discrepancy between naval or maritime scholars, and those who locate their work in the newer field of the Atlantic or Black Atlantic world. Whereas Atlantic world scholars seek to dissolve the national affiliations that, they claim, become irrelevant in the broader Atlantic, maritime or naval historians have traditionally relied on national structures in order to describe the sea and its literature. My paper reads Herman Melville’s Israel Potter, a novel that encompasses the broader Age of Revolution of the late eighteenth century, in the context of this ideological discord.

Slighted by most readers and teachers of Melville, Israel Potter: His Fifty Years of Exile is a brisk narrative of the life of a pauper who is present for many of the signal moments in the Age of Revolution. He fights at Bunker Hill, meets Benjamin Franklin in Paris, and falls victim to press gangs. Potter was a sailor and marksman from Massachusetts who fought on land and at sea, in both the Revolution and the War of 1812, and on the sides of both the United States (willingly) and Britain (unwillingly). The lively incidents and encounters that Melville inserts into Potter’s original history all reinforce the problem of national identification—and affiliation—that marks his late-eighteenth-century world. Potter’s narrative is a story of the vicissitudes of Atlantic life and trade. As an American citizen unable to claim the “protection” of his nation, whether at sea or on foreign shores, Potter discovers that his rights are neither inalienable nor independent of the will of sovereign states. Israel Potter thus curiously makes the experience of a common man both conditional on his status as American, and exempt from any of the political or commercial protection such national affiliation would provide.

For the mobility of Potter’s Atlantic experience does not derive from personal agency: rather, Israel’s sovereign identity is in thrall to the capriciousness of both nature and nations. Eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century American seamen, for example, were issued “protections,” government documents that testified to their citizenship. These documents were supposed to keep the individual seaman free from impressment, and were thought to offer some small degree of security from privateers or pirates. In practice, however, protections were often useless. When Israel Potter tries to claim protection from an English press gang by advertising his American citizenship, he is told, “There’s no Englishmen in the English fleet. All foreigners. You may take their own word for it.” The press gang member’s impertinent reply to Israel’s claim underscores how little value national protection holds in the Atlantic world.

The conditions of the Atlantic world in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries created the opportunity for fluidity of identity and affiliation, but sailors seldom had the chance to take advantage of this fluidity through sovereign action. My paper examines the consequences of making sailors emblematic of a certain kind of flexible citizenship, but disallowing them from enjoying its benefits.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 335 words || 
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5. "Values Among Allies: The Impact of the Muhammad Cartoon Crisis on Trans-Atlantic Relations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p251655_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The controversies following the publication of the so-called Muhammad cartoons by the Danish newspaper Jyllandsposten in October 2005 are widely referred to as causing the deepest crisis in Danish foreign policy since World War II. By early 2006, embassies were attacked, a massive embargo on Danish products damaged Danish companies, and the Danish foreign policy identity as an ‘active internationalist’ promoting democracy, development and human rights was questioned. The depth of the crisis was underscored by the criticism of the cartoons, and thus of the Danish government’s response to their publication, coming from the Bush and Blair Administrations. The Danish Government argued emphatically that any grievances caused by the cartoons should be brought in from of the courts, but that the Government had no right to express an opinion on their publication. This discourse constituted freedom of expression as a sacrosanct Western democratic value, and Denmark as a staunch defender thereof, at home and in Afghanistan and Iraq. Thus what was challenged by the withheld US and UK recognition was both the constitution of Denmark’s domestic identity and its status within the network of trans-Atlantic relations. Theoretically, the paper brings particular attention to the importance of recognition for foreign policy identity, both at the level of national identity and alliance identity. In the Danish case, calls for recognizing Denmark’s foreign policy identity were directed to two sets of constitutive Others: ‘the Allied’, namely the US and Britain, and ‘the Assisted’, which was comprised by the Middle Eastern countries as well as the domestic Muslim Other. Whereas the discourse directed towards the Allied operated within a logic of similarity (the US and the UK were called upon to univocally support the Danish government’s discourse), the discourse directed towards the Middle Eastern and domestic Muslim subject operated within a logic of benign (colonial) superiority where the concept of ‘gratitude’ played a structuring role. Finally, speaking to the debates on “Western identity”, particularly in the context of trans-Atlantic relations the consequences of the Muhammad Cartoon Crisis are discussed.

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