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2018 - 89th Annual SPSA Conference Words: 260 words || 
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1. Kostyuk, Nadiya. and Yin, George. "Why Attack? Cyber coercion, the militarization of cyberspace, and the global pattern of large DDoS attack" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 89th Annual SPSA Conference, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, LA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1328407_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Despite widely-accepted skepticism that coercion in cyberspace is ineffective due to attribution uncertainty, we have seen a growing number of cyber attacks in recent years attempting to deter or compel an adversary. What explains the emergence of such a trend and under which conditions can cyber attacks serve as an effective tool of coercion? We argue that coercion via cyberspace can be effective when the target of coercion has some capacity to attribute cyber attacks. In such circumstances, not only cyber attacks constitute a credible signal of resolve, they also allow leaders to concede a dispute without suffering grave domestic political consequences. As a result, countries that have the ability to reduce attribution uncertainty and identify the attacker are more likely to become targets of cyber coercion. We test our theory with an original dataset on the daily distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks across all countries from 2013 to 2016 as well as the global distribution of cyber units within the military. Using an instrumental variable framework, we show that countries with a cyber unit within country’s armed forces – that help reduce attribution uncertainty in cyberspace due to its intelligence-gathering capabilities – attract significantly more large-scale DDoS attacks that aim at coercion compared to countries without such a unit. Results are robust across a number of different functional specifications and estimation methods. Our finding lends support to our theory, and has implications for understanding both of how the militarization of cyberspace generates incentives for countries to execute extensive cyber campaigns and of how this changes the nature of coercive diplomacy.

2010 - NCA 96th Annual Convention Words: 108 words || 
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2. Coombs, William. and Holladay, Sherry. "When Stakeholder Attacks Online: Understanding the Dynamics of Cyber Attacks as Crises" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 96th Annual Convention, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p423615_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Stakeholders creating crises by challenging an organization are not new but the online context has changed the dynamics of the challenge crisis. Of course not all online challenges are serious and require attention. So an additional challenge exists in evaluating online challenges. This paper explores the valid reasons for concern over online challenges, the markers that help to differentiate between serious and unimportant challenges, and how crisis communication must adapt. Of particular concern with adaptation is how the online environment exposes preventative communication efforts to public view and how efforts to prevent a crisis begin to blur with efforts to respond to a crisis.

2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 155 words || 
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3. Rechavi, Amit., Berenblum, Tamar. and Maimon, David. "System Trespassers’ Attack Networks: Investigating The Dynamics Of Repeated System Trespassing Events On Attacked Computer System" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, <Not Available>. 2019-11-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1028927_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: Once gaining initial access to an attacked computer system, system trespassers (i.e. hackers) confirm that they can return to the system in later times. However, when initiating a repeated system trespassing event, trespassers employ different IP addresses than those used in their original infiltration. This study seeks to characterize the attributes of system trespassers’ attack-networks by analyzing data collected from a series of target computers deployed into the infrastructures of Chinese and Israeli universities. Following their first system trespassing event on the target computers, trespassers were allowed access to the target computers and could resume repeated system trespassing events for a period of 30 days. Social Network Analysis tools are employed to investigate the dynamics of repeated system trespassing events, identify attack-networks’ typologies, and rethink ways to influence system trespassers’ online behavior in different stages of the attack. Findings from this project carry both theoretical and practical implications for system trespassing research and security practices.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 7074 words || 
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4. Aikat, Debashis. "The Blending of Traditional Media and the Internet: Patterns of Media Agenda Setting and Web Search Trends Before and After the September 11 Attacks" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p15105_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The focusing events of September 11 led to the melding of the traditional media agenda and online agenda, as defined by Web search trends. Based on several multi-faceted theories related to agenda setting, this paper examined Web search trends before and after the September 11 attacks by analyzing actual keywords entered by Google search engine users in August, September, and October 2001. In subsequent analyses, the top search queries were compared with television and print media coverage of the same issues.

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