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2007 - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Pages: 6 pages || Words: 976 words || 
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1. Maimon, David. and Payne, Danielle. "Neighborhood Religiosity, Depression and Social Control: A Multilevel Analysis of Adolescents’ Suicide Attempts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 13, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p200232_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Although the suicide rate among American youths between the ages of 10-24 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, little research has examined this outcome within larger social contexts of the adolescent environment. Relying on Durkheim’s theory of social integration, the current analysis examines the effect of individual and structural level social integration on adolescents’ suicide attempts. Using a generalized sample of 6,406 respondents within 314 neighborhoods, we examine the assumption that high levels of religious, familial, neighborhood, and school integration (and regulation) are associated with fewer suicide attempts among youths. Our analysis reveals some interesting results; while we find support for the traditional Durkheimian assumptions, multilevel analysis results indicate that neighborhood disorganization constructs (i.e. population density and neighborhood disadvantage) reduce adolescents’ probability of suicide attempts. Moreover, we find evidence that adolescent depression and neighborhood religiosity interact to influence suicide attempts.

2002 - American Political Science Association Pages: 22 pages || Words: 5907 words || 
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2. Rogerson, Kenneth. and Wu, Wei. "Frontier for Freedom or Ripe for Regulation? U.S. Congressional Attempts at Internet Regulation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Sheraton Boston & Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2002 <Not Available>. 2019-04-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p65778_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Though the Internet has been envisioned as a frontier for free speech, attempts to regulate this channel of communication not only exist, but are increasing around the world. While not many would dispute that the Internet has had at least some impact on society in general, empirical evidence would contribute to understanding the nature and extent of this impact and could lend support to the competing claims that this impact is positive or negative.
Given its potential for both good and bad, the Internet has proven to be a volatile subject for policy makers. Initial research indicates that, in the United States, Congressional discussions about possible Internet regulations have been fairly bipartisan. While much has been written about U.S. party politics, Congressional voting patterns, divided vs. united governments, and party polarization B of which bipartisanship is a part B many of the scholarly discussions on the general concept of bipartisanship focus on foreign policymaking.

2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 40 pages || Words: 10571 words || 
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3. Zook, Nathan. "Street Corner Preachers of Foreign Policy: Religious Organizations and the Attempt to Change U.S. Policy Toward Cuba" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-04-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p60654_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Street corner preachers are preachers without walls. They do not have the comforts or benefits of established congregations. Each time they preach, they must acquire and try to keep an audience while they deliver a message. However, the costs of not having a supportive religious institution could also result in benefits such as having the freedom to choose any style and to preach an uninhibited message.

The purpose of this article is to look at the role of faith-based nongovernmental organizations (FNGOs) in incorporating normative issues of human rights concerns into foreign policy. FNGOs could be considered the “street corner preachers” of U.S. foreign policy. Rather than addressing what has happened or what could happen in international relations, normative debates focus on what should happen. Normative issues are not typically given priority in foreign policy. Difficulties for FNGOs in finding a voice in foreign policy are high considering the fact that they typically lack the resources and acceptability of more powerful organized interests such as foreign governments and large corporations. Nevertheless, FNGOs are free from policymaking constraints and are therefore able to maintain a consistent witness in the realm of politics.

The case of U.S. foreign policy toward Cuba provides a prime context for studying FNGOs due to the deep division between those who advocate the position that Cuba is a national security threat to the United States and those who emphasize the normative argument that provision of food, medicine, humanitarian aid, and normalized relations should be the United States’ primary policy towards one of its nearest neighbors. For over forty years, the latter viewpoint has faced an uphill battle in establishing itself in U.S. policy on Capitol Hill. This leads to the main topic of this article: In particular, how and why do FNGOs seek to have an impact on U.S. foreign policy when they typically lack the resources and acceptability of more powerful organized interests?

Even though any FNGO seeking to have influence in this realm may be considered outside the mainstream and therefore a “street corner preacher” of foreign policy, some are more acceptable to decision-makers than others. A street corner preacher who stands still and speaks gently may be considered more acceptable than one who uses a bull-horn and confronts passers-by. Similarly, FNGOs use a diversity of tactics to impact U.S. foreign policy.

In delving into the complexity of the FNGOs in this study, their tactics can be divided into two separate stances. On the one hand, moderate groups seek to increase their acceptability to policy makers by engaging in traditional lobbying tactics such as establishing coalitions, building relationships with government officials, and seeking success on incremental measures. On the other hand, resistance-oriented groups seek to protest policy measures they consider immoral by engaging in civil disobedience. As a result, several questions are addressed: 1) What do FNGOs hope to achieve with these stances as moderate groups or resistance groups? 2) What are the implications of each mode of operation?

2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 26 pages || Words: 6979 words || 
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4. Thompson, Joseph. "Northern Ireland Elections: Attempts at Democratization in a Divided Society" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-04-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p42284_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The paper offers three viewpoints of Northern Ireland elections. Each conceptual framework spells out a significant impact on the political culture. Using the divided society concept in conjunction with the engineered smoothing of party votes, the holistic understanding of the province's electorate permits tentative five-year forecasts.

2005 - American Sociological Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 6595 words || 
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5. Wendel-Hummell, Carrie. "Alien Torts Claim Act: A New Attempt to Hold Violators of Human Rights Accountable in a Global Era" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p20599_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper examines a new attempt to make U.S. corporations accountable for their complicity in human rights violations occurring abroad by using the Alien Torts Claims Act (ATCA) in U.S. courts. Although these cases have yet to be resolved, a preliminary analysis shows that powerful actors from the state and the business community have come together to oppose this use of the ATCA, commonly invoking free-market rhetoric. Furthermore, the ATCA cases allow us to look into a novel, legal approach to affecting human rights in a global world.

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