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2010 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 143 words || 
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1. Jones, Michael. and Nowlin, Matthew. "The Importance of Attention: Core Beliefs, Knowledge, Attention, and Issue Salience" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Crowne Plaza Hotel Ravinia, Atlanta, Georgia, Jan 06, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-04-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p396428_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Previous research has indicated that issue salience plays an important role in opinion formation and voting behavior. However, little research has been directed toward the driving factors that influence issue salience. Other streams of research have focused on the impacts of attention and information processing with regard to public opinion, but to our knowledge attempts to operationalize attention at the individual level have not been fruitful. Using a rarely used theory of individual attention (Jones 2001) we examine the influence of overall policy attention on issue salience across five policy issues. Drilling down further, we test competing hypotheses about what drives issue salience in relation to environmental policy, contrasting issue attention with well developed explanations such as core beliefs and policy knowledge. We conclude with a discussion about the important role overall attention to issues can play with regard to any single issue.

2011 - International Communication Association Words: 155 words || 
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2. Gola, Alice Ann., Kirkorian, Heather., Perez, Marta., Anderson, Daniel. and Calvert, Sandra. "Attention-Eliciting Versus Attention-Maintaining Formal Features of Infant DVDs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, <Not Available>. 2019-04-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p486787_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: To investigate how formal features (e.g., camera cuts, sound effects) of baby DVDs affect infants’ attention to the screen, we showed 63 6-, 9- and 12-month-olds a 5-minute clip from one of four baby DVDs. Infants’ attention to the screen was coded for their look onsets and offsets, which were then time-locked to the occurrence of the programs’ discrete formal features. Looking during three-second onset intervals of each formal feature was compared to three-second control intervals which did not contain the feature. Features included changes to familiar or novel scenes, character or object changes, cuts, special effects, vocalizations, and sound effects. All formal features significantly elicited the attention of inattentive children. However, only sound effects and familiar scene changes sustained infants’ attention. Effects did not vary by age of infant. These formal features are better at getting infants to look at the screen than in sustaining their attention.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Todd, James., Soska, Kasey., Costales, Amanda. and Bahrick, Lorraine. "The Emergence of Social Attention: Maintenance and Disengagement of Attention to Social and Nonsocial Events from 3 to 6 Months" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-04-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p961592_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Attention to social events promotes typical perceptual, cognitive, and language development. Children with autism show impaired maintenance and disengagement of attention to social events (Dawson etal., 2004). Characterizing the trajectory of social attention, particularly in infancy, is critical to early identification of autism. Cross-sectional habituation data indicate a preference for social events emerges between 2-8 months of age, and is evident as early as 3 months (Bahrick et al., 2009). However, longitudinal data assessing individual differences in multiple attention skills is needed to more accurately describe the trajectory of social attention across infancy.

Using the Multisensory Attention Assessment Protocol (MAAP; Bahrick & Todd, submitted), it is possible to assess individual differences in multiple indices of attention to dynamic social and nonsocial events across the lifespan. Findings from the MAAP have demonstrated an increase in social (but not nonsocial) attention between 2-6 years of age. Here we assessed the early development of social and nonsocial attention by presenting the MAAP to infants at 3 and 6 months of age in a longitudinal design.

Infants were tested at 3 months (N=30; M=92.4 days, SD=4.9), and again at 6 months of age (N=19; M=179.5, SD=5.0; data collection ongoing). In the MAAP, trials of a 3s central visual event (animated shapes) were immediately followed by two side-by-side lateral events (10s), one in synchrony with its natural soundtrack. Lateral events were either social (two women speaking) or nonsocial (two objects striking a surface). On half of the trials, the central stimulus remained on during the lateral events (overlap trials providing competing visual stimulation), while on the other half the central stimulus was turned off (no-overlap trials). Measures of attention maintenance (duration; proportion of available time looking to lateral events) and disengagement (speed; latency to shift attention to lateral events on overlap trials) were calculated.

Results overall indicated longer maintenance and faster disengagement of attention at 6 than 3 months (ps<.05; Figs. 1 & 2). Also, longer attention maintenance to social than nonsocial events was evident at both ages (ps<.01). At 6 months, infants showed longer maintenance to social and nonsocial events than at 3 months on overlap, but not no-overlap, trials (ps<.004). Six-month-olds also were faster to disengage from the central event to look to the lateral social events than 3-month-olds (p=.01), but there were no differences for nonsocial events.

These findings demonstrate overall improvements in basic indices of attention with age, including longer attention maintenance and faster disengagement at 6 months than at 3 months. Moreover, infants at both ages showed a social preference, with longer attention maintenance to social than nonsocial events, and speed of attention disengagement to look to social events improved from 3 to 6 months. These findings demonstrate the MAAP to be a simple but powerful tool for assessing attention skills in early infancy. Ongoing research will extend these findings to older ages and characterize individual differences in the trajectories of social vs. nonsocial attention, with implications for early identification of atypical attention trajectories in disorders such as autism.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 6661 words || 
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4. Weber, Rene., Huskey, Richard. and Terrazas, Magnum. "Attentional Capacity and Flow Experiences: Examining the Attentional Component of Synchronization Theory" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-04-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p985893_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Several decades of research has shed considerable light on the positive effects of flow experiences resulting from media exposure. However, little is known about the cognitive processes that result in flow. This may be due in part, by an over reliance on self-report measures of flow. In two experimental studies, we seek to overcome these issues by developing and validating the use of secondary task response times as an unobtrusive measure of flow. Consistent with theoretical predictions, our results show that response times are longest under the condition of flow compared to conditions of boredom and frustration. Consistent with the assumptions central to the synchronization theory of flow, this finding indicates that flow experiences during media exposure are indeed characterized by a process of highly focused attention. We conclude this paper with a discussion of the implications for the future development and application of media research on flow.

2012 - ARNOVA Annual Conference Words: 72 words || 
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5. Guo, Chao. and Saxton, Gregory. "May I Have Your Attention, Please? Rethinking Nonprofit Strategies for the Age of Attention Philanthropy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ARNOVA Annual Conference, Hyatt Regency Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, Nov 14, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-04-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p583729_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the concept of attention philanthropy, tentatively defined as voluntary action for public good that is primarily concerned with overcoming the problem of attention deficit. We lay out the boundaries of attention philanthropy, explore some of these positive and negative consequences, and discuss the way attention philanthropy is changing nonprofit organizational practices. We also outline strategies nonprofits can employ to navigate through this new environment of attention philanthropy.

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