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2012 - ARNOVA Annual Conference Words: 72 words || 
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1. Guo, Chao. and Saxton, Gregory. "May I Have Your Attention, Please? Rethinking Nonprofit Strategies for the Age of Attention Philanthropy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ARNOVA Annual Conference, Hyatt Regency Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, Nov 14, 2012 <Not Available>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p583729_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the concept of attention philanthropy, tentatively defined as voluntary action for public good that is primarily concerned with overcoming the problem of attention deficit. We lay out the boundaries of attention philanthropy, explore some of these positive and negative consequences, and discuss the way attention philanthropy is changing nonprofit organizational practices. We also outline strategies nonprofits can employ to navigate through this new environment of attention philanthropy.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 6661 words || 
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2. Weber, Rene., Huskey, Richard. and Terrazas, Magnum. "Attentional Capacity and Flow Experiences: Examining the Attentional Component of Synchronization Theory" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p985893_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Several decades of research has shed considerable light on the positive effects of flow experiences resulting from media exposure. However, little is known about the cognitive processes that result in flow. This may be due in part, by an over reliance on self-report measures of flow. In two experimental studies, we seek to overcome these issues by developing and validating the use of secondary task response times as an unobtrusive measure of flow. Consistent with theoretical predictions, our results show that response times are longest under the condition of flow compared to conditions of boredom and frustration. Consistent with the assumptions central to the synchronization theory of flow, this finding indicates that flow experiences during media exposure are indeed characterized by a process of highly focused attention. We conclude this paper with a discussion of the implications for the future development and application of media research on flow.

2009 - International Communication Association Pages: 12 pages || Words: 1989 words || 
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3. Heo, Nokon. "Animation and Involuntary Covert Attention: A Methodological Testing of “Automatic Attention Capture” vs. “Contingency Capture” Theories" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott, Chicago, IL, May 21, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p301290_index.html>
Publication Type: Extended Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This experimental study examines two species of theories explaining banner animation effects: "automatic attention capture" vs. "contingency capture." Research based on the automatic attention capture theory suggests that motion detection is fundamentally natural and conducted involuntarily during the early stages of visual information processing (e.g., Lang, Borse, Wise, & David, 2002; Reeves & Nass, 1996). The contingency theory, on the other hand, explains that although motion detection may be automatic and involuntary, attention capture is contingent on attentional control settings, such as motivation and task demands (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). Researchers employing these theories have been able to produce data patterns consistent with predicted hypotheses, yet little attempts have been made to test the competing theories within the same experimental design. Furthermore, the stimuli used in these studies have widely been different from one another, making it difficult to compare the data for the purpose of theory testing. The present investigation attempts to provide a methodological ground to testing these two competing theories related to animation effects by employing a visual search paradigm. A total of 48 participants will be performing a visual search task in one of the two independent 2 (Target Banner Type) x 4 (Distractor Number) within-subject designs. Search task performance will be measured in reaction time to provide not only a solid, data-driven testing of the theories but also an important implication concerning the finding that attention capture is not always involuntary but contingent on attention control settings induced by task demands.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Sabatos-DeVito, Maura., Stephens, Rebecca., Reznick, J., Goldman, Barbara., Watson, Linda. and Baranek, Grace. "Predicting Preschoolers' Attentional, Sensory, and Temperament Patterns and ASD Risk from 12-month-olds’ Attentional Profiles" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p962767_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The First Year Inventory (FYI; Reznick et al., 2007) is a parent questionnaire designed to detect 12-month-olds at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The current scoring metric effectively detects some infants who receive an ASD diagnosis and others with developmental concerns; however, not all children who develop ASD are detected with the FYI’s original scoring (Turner-Brown et al., 2012). While early social and sensory attentional differences are evident in those at risk for ASDs and other developmental disorders, individual differences in aspects of infant attention are also predictive of typically developing preschoolers’ attention regulation and temperament (Vaughan van Hecke et al., 2007; 2012). Exploring new dimensional constructs of social and sensory attention from the FYI can define profiles at 12 months that predict attentional, sensory, and temperament differences, as well as risk for ASD in the preschool years.
The purpose of this study was to: 1) investigate the predictive value of three attention constructs from the FYI (responding to attention coordination (RAC); initiating attention coordination (IAC); sensory and attentional engagement (SAE)); 2) compare attentional and sensory features, temperament, and risk for ASD in preschoolers with different 12-month-old attentional profiles who did not meet ASD risk with the original FYI scoring.
We assessed the predictive value of three attentional constructs (RAC, IAC, SAE) on parent reports of 30-month-olds’ (n=118) temperament (Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire; ECBQ), risk for ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale-2; SRS-2), sensory features (Sensory Experiences Questionnaire; SEQ-3.0), and attentional overfocusing (Kinsbourne Overfocusing Scale). We also compared groups with different 12-month-old attentional profiles: poor RAC+IAC+SAE; poor RAC+SAE; poor RAC+IAC; and good RAC+IAC+SAE. Data collection is ongoing and behavioral coding of observational measures of joint and focused attention and self-regulation are underway.
Regression analyses confirm that the three attention constructs are significantly related to 30-month-olds’ social responsiveness on the SRS-2, contributing 21.76% of the variance in total scores (F=11.96, p<0.0001). Constructs are also significantly predictive of overfocused attention; sensory hyporesponsiveness, hyperresponsiveness, seeking, and nonsocial sensory responsiveness; and temperament, including negative affectivity, surgency/extraversion, and attention shifting (see Table 1). Poor RAC and SAE at 12 months were the strongest contributors of unique variance across most outcomes. Analysis of variance comparing four attentional profiles revealed group differences in ASD risk, sensory features, overfocused attention, and temperamental reactivity (see Table 2). Groups with poor RAC+IAC+SAE and poor RAC+SAE at 12 months had significantly poorer social responsiveness (i.e., elevated ASD risk scores), greater negative affectivity, and more overfocused attention at 30 months than those with good RAC+IAC+SAE. The poor RAC+IAC+SAE group had significantly elevated sensory features, and the poor RAC+SAE group had significantly less inhibitory control. The poor RAC+IAC group had significantly lower surgency/extraversion.
Attentional constructs derived from the FYI are predictive of social responsiveness/ASD risk, sensory response patterns, and overfocused attention, and features of temperament. Attentional profiles are linked to significant group differences at 30 months. Future studies could use these attentional profiles to identify risk for ASD versus individual differences in temperament and attention, and inform the selection of intervention strategies.

2006 - XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies Words: 396 words || 
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5. Behne, Tanya., Carpenter, Malinda. and Tomasello, Michael. "From Attention to Intention: 18-month-olds use Others’ Focus of Attention for Action Interpretation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies, Westin Miyako, Kyoto, Japan, Jun 19, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p94033_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Abstract: When acting intentionally people typically attend to and monitor their action. Thus, from an observer’s perspective, an actor’s focus of attention or perceptual access is an excellent source of information regarding the actor’s intention-in-action. Previous research, using verbal measures, showed that 3-year-olds can use others’ line of regard for action interpretation (Joseph & Tager-Flusberg 1999). With respect to younger children, infants’ sensitivity to others’ line of regard (e.g. Baldwin 1993, Moses et al. 2001, Phillips et al. 2002) and their understanding of others’ intentional action (Meltzoff 1995, Carpenter et al. 1998) are well documented. However, it is an open question whether infants already understand something about the relation between others’ focus of attention and their intentional actions.

Thus, 18-month-olds (n=24) were shown an adult illuminating a light box using unusual actions (e.g., pressing down on it with a toy, or with her foot), in one of two conditions. In the attending condition, the adult performed the action while monitoring her behavior; in the distracted condition, she illuminated the light in exactly the same way, but while she was looking away. Each infant participated in four tasks, two in each condition (counterbalanced across subjects). (The duration of each demonstration was adjusted to infants’ looking behavior, as monitored ‘online’ by an assistant, and later manipulation checks confirmed that the amount of time infants watched the modeled action did not differ across conditions). Infants’ responses were coded from videotape, blind to condition. We predicted that infants would preferentially imitate the modeled action when the adult had attended to her actions (i.e., when acting intentionally).

An ANOVA on infants’ imitation scores yielded a significant effect of condition (attending vs. distracted, F(1, 22) = 18.02, p < .001) and no effect of gender, nor an interaction. Specifically, infants imitated the unusual action significantly more in the attending condition (in 71% of trials) than in the non-attending condition (in 29% of trials). The same pattern of results was found when focussing on infants’ first action responses (main effect of condition, F(1, 22) = 6.41, p = .019).

These results suggest that infants were able to use another person’s line of regard to distinguish intentional actions from incidental behaviour, and they adjusted their imitative response accordingly. Thus, infants are able to use attentional information for action understanding, to help determine the goal another person is pursuing. (Work on their use of emotion information is in progress.)

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