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2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Zhou, Shuo. and Shapiro, Michael. "Impacts of a Character’s Morality on Audience Perspective Taking and Audience Explanations for Character Behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, Jun 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1108992_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The current study examines the effects of character morality on audience members’ perspective taking processes. Through two experiments, we find people tend to take an actor’s perspective when interpreting moral characters, indicated by higher level of egocentric projection into the character, identification with the character, paying closer attention to their unintentional behaviors, and providing more mechanical causes to explain these behaviors. In contrast, when processing immoral characters, people tend to take an observer’s perspective by focusing more on intentional behaviors. This research extends our understanding of the role of character morality in narrative processing and conditions under which people would use different mental inference strategies to understand a media character.

2017 - 88th Annual SPSA Conference Words: 199 words || 
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2. Krewson, Christopher. "Justices and Their Multiple Audiences: How Context and Audience Shape Judicial Behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 88th Annual SPSA Conference, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, LA, Jan 11, 2017 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1203393_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: It is evident that judges pay attention to audience. We know that circuit judges change their behavior when a particularly relevant audience, the president, is listening (Black and Owens 2015). Baum (2006) suggests that Supreme Court justices are motivated by how their actions are portrayed to those they care about. Richard Posner (2008) has emphasized the role of reputation.

In a given case there are a number of audiences that could matter to judges. The challenge for scholars is to uncover the relationship between judges and these multiple audiences. I argue that understanding context is key. As one scholar insightfully wrote, “the audiences for whom an opinion is written and the purposes that the opinion is intended to serve will influence the manner in which judges write the opinion” (Johnson 2014).

For this paper, I demonstrate one situation where context influences the manner in which opinions are written. Justices who disagree with case outcomes, and only those justices, alter the language of their opinions to attract the attention of the media, a powerful and distributive audience. This behavior takes place in salient cases where we would expect the media to be listening and, therefore, to matter to dissenting justices.

2017 - AEJMC Pages: unavailable || Words: 7633 words || 
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3. Kornfield, Rachel. and Toma, Catalina. "When do Online Audiences Amplify Wellbeing Benefits of Expressive Writing? Identifying Effects of Audience Similarity and Commenting" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AEJMC, Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile, Chicago, IL, Aug 09, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1282647_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: It may be possible to enhance benefits of self-disclosure writing through adjusting online environments and thereby the perceptions of one’s audience. In a two-by-two experimental design, we examine effects of 1) establishing a shared identity between writers and audiences, and 2) enabling or disabling commenting. Results suggest that writers perceiving similar audiences showed more cognitive processing, while those led to expect comments wrote less about emotions. Audience similarity was associated with increased post-traumatic growth.

2017 - AEJMC Pages: unavailable || Words: 5435 words || 
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4. Nelson, Jacob. and Taneja, Harsh. "The Small, Disloyal Fake News Audience: The Role of Audience Availability in Fake News Consumption" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AEJMC, Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile, Chicago, IL, Aug 09, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1281957_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Fears of fake news stem from two assumptions: that fake news consumption has grown widespread, and that it reaches an audience that spends little time with news and is thus more susceptible to false claims. However, prior audience behavior research suggests that light media users disproportionately gravitate towards established, popular brands, while heavy users visit both familiar and obscure fare. This paper examines online audience data in the months leading up to and following the 2016 presidential election to empirically analyze whether or not these long-observed patterns of audience behavior play out when it comes to fake news. We find a positive relationship between time spent online and fake news exposure, indicating that the fake news audience comprises a small group of heavy internet users. In doing so, we offer a more accurate portrait of the fake news audience, and contribute to the ongoing conversation about fake news’ reach, and its consequences.

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