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2013 - SCRA Biennial Meeting Words: 234 words || 
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1. Babb, Keturah., Bethell, Amanda. and Roberts, Robyn. "Urban Renewal Initiatives and its influences on juvenile delinquency in The Bahamas" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SCRA Biennial Meeting, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, Jun 26, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p650106_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Urban renewal has constantly been reviewed from an economical or sociological perspective. However, the objective of this paper is the investigation of the effects of the phenomenon known as urban renewal from a psychological perspective. Within the Bahamas there has been a significant increase in crime over the past five years, which led to the government taking prompt action to discourage participation in criminal activities. Urban renewal initiatives in the capital city of Nassau, New Providence and the nation’s second city Freeport, Grand Bahama developed to deter criminal behavior and aid in community and social development. These initiatives have been particularly targeted towards the juvenile population of the Bahamas that have fallen prey to society’s ills. After school programs, camps, and bands are few of the efforts developed to provide a positive impact on the juveniles to aid in an improved way of life. Despite the attempts of well developed and beneficial urban renewal initiatives, other influences on an individual’s life can have greater impact. For instance, parental relationships, intimate relationships and friendships can have a greater impact on the direction the juvenile. Participants in the study are from the urban renewal sites in Grand Bahama and New Providence. The data collected from these sites will aid in the understanding of the variables influencing juvenile behavior. Results from this study are beneficial in the development of the Urban Renewal program within Bahamian urban communities.

2017 - 41st Annual National Council for Black Studies Conference Words: 290 words || 
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2. Louis, Bertin. "Christianity, Politics and a Lack of Social Activism: Protestantism in the Haitian Diaspora of the Bahamas" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 41st Annual National Council for Black Studies Conference, Hilton Houston Post Oak, Houston, TX, <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1256506_index.html>
Publication Type: Panelist Abstract
Abstract: Drawing from ethnographic research and political conditions in the Bahamas, this paper looks at the Haitian Protestant community of New Providence to understand the relationship between the types of evangelical Protestantism they practice and a lack of Haitian Protestant social activism. I use an intellectualist lens to understand how Haitians make meaning out of Protestant Christianity in this context and suggest that Haitian Protestant culture prevents collective political reaction to societal marginalization. This meaning takes on new dimensions within the context of recent changes to Bahamian immigration laws; specifically migration policies that went into effect on November 1, 2014 requiring that all people living in the Bahamas have a passport of their country of nationality. These changes also require children to show proof of nationality to register in the public school system. Both policies adversely affect Haitian migrants and their progeny by removing adherents from the Bahamas and preventing children of Haitian descent from receiving an education.

I provide a discussion of the issues facing the Haitian diaspora through a brief history of Protestantism in Haiti, Haitian migration to the Bahamas, a discussion of the Bahamian context and Haitian Protestantism in New Providence. I also discuss the changes in Bahamian immigration policy and the responses from within the Haitian Protestant community. I suggest that their reactions reflect how 1) Haitian Protestantism, in general, tends to avoid conflict and direct engagement with state power and 2) displays a divide between Haitians and their progeny born in the Bahamas. I conclude with a discussion of the ways in which Haitian Protestantism’s focus on individualism and perfecting oneself reinforce the existing social hierarchy of the Bahamas and serves overall as an impediment to social change for Haitians.

2008 - International Congress for Conservation Biology Words: 180 words || 
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3. Domroese, Meg. "DEVELOPING EDUCATIONAL TOOLS TO PROMOTE MARINE CONSERVATION IN THE BAHAMAS: LINKAGES AMONG RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND CONSERVATION" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress for Conservation Biology, Convention Center, Chattanooga, TN, Jul 10, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p243644_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Education is critical for management of marine protected areas, particularly where resources for official enforcement are limited and compliance with regulations is largely determined by local communities. This presentation will describe how education has been linked with multi-disciplinary research on marine protected areas in The Bahamas. In addition to participation of students and faculty in fieldwork, the research provided the impetus for a complementary educational initiative to strengthen marine education across The Bahamas. The recently published guide, "Treasures in the Sea: Our Bahamian Marine Resources," provides educators with scientific information and engaging, hands-on activities to incorporate marine conservation concepts into their curriculum. The process of developing this resource involved a survey of existing educational materials, consultation with scientists on concepts to cover and accuracy of information, and extensive discussion with teachers to adapt activities for the Bahamian context and ensure that educational goals are addressed. Following initial training workshops in July 2007, teachers have led subsequent workshops for others in their schools and are implementing activities with students. The evaluation process includes collecting feedback from teachers and examining learning outcomes.

2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 613 words || 
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4. Taylor, Marcellus. and Johnson, Pandora. "The Effects of Family Factors on Educational attainment in the Commonwealth of The Bahamas" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p717999_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Governments of The Bahamas have long held the view shared by the World Bank (1999) that education in general, and higher levels of schooling in particular, are fundamental to the construction of a knowledge economy and society in all nations. In the four decades following the attainment of independence in 1973, significant activity and important developments within the Bahamian educational system have taken place. Enhanced budgetary allocations, considerable improvement in the preparation of teachers, reductions in the student teacher ratio, the universalization of primary and secondary education, increased educational opportunities at the tertiary level, all point to significant progress made in education (Bethel, 1997).

However, these developments notwithstanding, the levels of educational attainment characteristic of the population (given the degree of investment reposed in the sector and the long tradition of compulsory schooling) is a source of continuing concern. Opposition politicians, employers and some academics fault the education system for not producing enough high school graduates and those with the skills needed to meet labor market needs and contribute positively (reflected in the problematic attitudes and risky behavior of many youth) (King, 2009; Bethel,1997). In addition, policymakers, college professors, and corporate citizens are particularly distressed about secondary school completion levels and the under-representation of the traditional age students and males in tertiary education (Chipman-Johnson and Vanderpool, 2003).

Several factors including macro-structural, community and family factors impact upon educational attainment (Whitsel, 2011; Feinstein, 2008). Studies that investigate the relationship between family factors and educational attainment tend to highlight parental education and family income as indicators of family factors. While research on the factors that influence educational attainment is available, there is a paucity of information existing on the factors that influence educational attainment in countries having the characteristics of The Bahamas: small island developing/emerging state with a colonial past located in the Anglophone Caribbean.

This study supposes that in the context of The Bahamas family factors are likely to contribute greatly to educational attainment. However, there is a desire to get a clearer understanding supported by empirical research findings. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of family factors on educational attainment, in the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. By shifting the context to that of a small state in the Anglophone Caribbean region, the study broadens the understanding of and adds to the body of knowledge on educational attainment.

A variety of univariate and bivariate statistics along with logistic regressions techniques was used to develop a descriptive profile of educational attainment and the associated family factors which help to create this profile. In order to examine factors that influence educational attainment, this study analyzed data from a structured interview schedule, administered to 600 persons. Each respondent answered questions relating to such matters as theirs and their parents’ educational attainment, socio-demographic factors such as place of residence, nationality, sex, age and family related factors including family structure, sibship (size and birth order), religion.

Initial findings indicate that there are several developments of interest. Most respondents state that lack of resources was the principal reason which exerted a negative impact on their level of educational attainment. On the positive side, mother’s emotional support for their children’s education was cited as important to them realizing their level of educational attainment. Predictably, the respondent’s level of educational attainment differs appreciably by parents’ nationality, educational attainment, occupation and perceived family income and place of residence. Less predictable was the differences in level of educational attainment based on the respondents’ religious affiliation (i.e. between Christian sects), type of school attended and the assumed number of siblings by way of the father occurring outside the mother/father union.

2013 - 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 630 words || 
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5. Taylor, Marcellus. and Johnson, Pandora. "The Relationship between Family Factors and Educational attainment In The Commonwealth of The Bahamas" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Hilton Riverside Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Mar 10, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p636332_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There is widespread belief that there is a causal relationship between education and national development. That belief holds that education is a vehicle for development (Brint, 2006; D’Oyley, Blunt, Barnhardt, 1994). For example, international lending agencies have prioritized education spending as a principal mechanism to advance economic growth. From the perspective of the World Bank (1999) Education in general and higher levels of schooling in particular is fundamental to the construction of a knowledge economy and society in all nations.

This belief is especially evident in countries of the Anglophone Caribbean which, having attained independence, have made heavy investments in education (King, 2009; World Bank, 2007; Bethel, 1997). In The Bahamas, for example, since gaining independence in 1973, the education sector has been allocated the largest portion of its national budget, with the result that significant progress and reform in the provision of educational opportunity has been realized. Unlike some countries in the Commonwealth Caribbean and other parts of the commonwealth, The Bahamas claims that it has universalized primary and secondary education as well as provided increased opportunities to pursue tertiary level education with the establishment of The College of The Bahamas in 1974.

Despite these developments, there is a growing concern about the levels of educational attainment characteristic of the population, given the level of investment reposed in the sector and the long tradition of compulsory schooling. Some observers and commentators express particular concern about secondary school completion levels and the under-representation of the traditional age students and males in tertiary education (Chipman-Johnson and Vanderpool, 2003). It appears that many high school graduates delay continuing their education immediately after completing secondary education. While this situation may be partly the result of access, it also likely that family factors are a greater contributor to this.

Most studies that examine the relationship between family factors and educational attainment focus on parental education and family income as measures of family factors. As well, many of these studies emanate from the industrialized contexts of the developed economies which differ from developing country contexts. In addition to the characteristics of parental education and family income, this study engages a broad range of family factors. Moreover, it shifts the context to that of a small state in the Anglophone Caribbean region, thereby broadening the understanding of and adding to the body of knowledge on educational attainment.

In order to examine factors that influence educational attainment, this study analyzed data from a structured interview schedule, administered to 300 persons. Each respondent answered questions relating to such matters as theirs and their parents’ educational attainment, place of residence, nationality, sex, birth cohort, family structure, sibship (size and birth order), religion, and type of school attended (public versus private). Additionally, respondents were asked to indicate the degree to which they felt various family- and community-based factors affected their levels of educational attainment. Using a variety of univariate and bivariate statistics, a descriptive profile of educational attainment and associated family factors were developed.

Initial findings indicate that there are several developments of interest. Most respondents state that lack of resources was the principal reason which exerted a negative impact on their level of educational attainment. On the positive side, mother’s emotional support for their children’s education was cited as important to them realizing their level of educational attainment. Predictably, the respondent’s level of educational attainment differs appreciably by parents’ nationality, educational attainment, occupation and perceived family income and place of residence. Less predictable was the differences in level of educational attainment based on the respondents’ religious affiliation (i.e. between Christian sects), type of school attended and the assumed number of siblings by way of the father occurring outside the mother/father union.

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