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2017 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 244 words || 
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1. Moazzin, Ghassan. "Entering a New Market for International Banking: Foreign Banks in the Chinese Banking Sector, 1880-1914" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1190906_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Between the 1880s and the First World War, European bankers viewed China as the up-and-coming market for international banking and started to establish branches in Chinese financial centres like Shanghai. As a result, foreign banks became a major presence in the banking sector of China’s treaty ports, where they not only financed China’s growing foreign trade, but also supplied the Chinese banking sector with cheap foreign capital. Nevertheless, their operations were always dependent on the interaction with Chinese bankers. Previous scholarship has largely portrayed the relationship between foreign and Chinese bankers in terms of foreign banks using their larger working capital and supposedly superior business practices to exploit and control the Chinese banking sector. This paper challenges this view and shows that the relationship between foreign and Chinese bankers was one of interdependence and mutual adaptation rather than one-sided control. First, this paper demonstrates how foreign banks had to adapt their business practices to the Chinese business environment and how Chinese bankers integrated foreign banks into existing business networks. The second part of the paper then explains how Chinese bankers often intentionally misinformed foreign banks or manipulated the credit market to gain additional profits from their transactions with foreign bankers. In conclusion, this paper argues that foreign banks had to enter into a symbiotic relationship with Chinese banks to operate in China. While this relationship was mutually beneficial and cooperation essential, it were Chinese and not foreign bankers who occupied the more advantageous position.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 37 pages || Words: 19640 words || 
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2. Weaver, Catherine. "The World's Bank and the Bank's World: Towards a Gross Anatomy of the World Bank" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p97968_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The paper tackles the essential question of who or what shapes and drives the policy and operational behavior of the World Bank? The central argument is that we need to examine both the external (political) and internal (bureaucratic culture) environments of the Bank. The paper begins by examining the theoretical and analytical tools employed by principal-agent models and sociological organizational culture to analyze organizational behavior. I then turn to the main focus of the paper, which is a detailed historical description and empirical analysis of the Bank’s dual environments. I start with the world’s Bank, focusing primarily on the Bank’s relationship with its principal member states and NGOs. I take special note of the Bank’s relationship with the U.S.. In the second half, I focus on the “Bank’s world”, investigating the internal bureaucratic politics and culture of the Bank. Specifically, I examine the sources and evolution of the Bank’s “intellectual culture” (characterized by its economistic, apolitical and technical rationality) and its ‘operational culture’ (portrayed as driven by approval and disbursement imperatives).

2005 - International Studies Association Words: 723 words || 
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3. Jepsen, Eric. "Subnational Governments, the Asian Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the World Bank: The Politics of Private Infrastructure Investment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p70632_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The proposed paper attempts to move beyond the existing literature on the politics of economic development by focusing on the political economy of private infrastructure investment programs at the subnational level in Asia and Latin America. International financial institutions like the Asian Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the World Bank have increasingly focused technical and financial support at the level of provincial, state, and local governments. While there is an ever-expanding list of subnational governments receiving assistance from International Financial Institutions (IFIs), we do not have adequate answers to the question of why some subnational governments receive support and others do not. This paper will seek to explain, based upon a time-series analysis of IFI program assistance choices, what international, national, and local factors contribute to the pattern of backing certain subnational governments. Because of the nature of the research question, trading patterns, electoral dynamics, institutions, and interest groups comprise the primary explanatory thrust of the paper. With the expectation that similar sets of independent variables influence institutional activity throughout the developing world, this paper will focus on all cases in Asia and Latin America for the 1993-2003 time period. Hypotheses tested in the analysis stem from the IPE, CPE, and US politics literatures. The proposed research has significant implications for the study of the political economy of development, as well as crucial policy implications. First, this paper is designed to recast existing thinking about the political economy of development in less industrialized and emerging market nations. By analyzing the web of relationships between local governments and international actors from different regions of the world, we will gain a better sense as to what factors are driving the technical assistance selection process throughout the developing world. Second, by focusing on both the subnational and international levels of analysis, the research will fill a sizable empirical gap in the literature on the politics of economic development, as well as provide a more complete picture of the relationship between politics at different levels of government and corresponding policymaking patterns. Third, this research will make significant contributions to the Asian and Latin American political economy literatures. In both cases the focus on the federal level has neglected the growing importance of subnational and international actors in the development process and resulting international diversity in economic policy and performance. Finally, the research has significant policy implications. While decentralization has continued to move forward in many parts of the developing world, little research has attempted to gauge the relative importance of political economic factors on local-international interaction. The opportunities and difficulties that local leaders have to increase economic competitiveness in an increasingly globalized world need be better understood, especially as more and more The proposed research has significant implications for the study of the political economy of development, as well as crucial policy implications. First, this paper is designed to recast existing thinking about the political economy of development in less industrialized and emerging market nations. By analyzing the web of relationships between local governments and international actors from different regions of the world, we will gain a better sense as to what factors are driving the technical assistance selection process throughout the developing world. Second, by focusing on both the subnational and international levels of analysis, the research will fill a sizable empirical gap in the literature on the politics of economic development, as well as provide a more complete picture of the relationship between politics at different levels of government and corresponding policymaking patterns. Third, this research will make significant contributions to the Asian and Latin American political economy literatures. In both cases the focus on the federal level has neglected the growing importance of subnational and international actors in the development process and resulting international diversity in economic policy and performance. Finally, the research has significant policy implications. While decentralization has continued to move forward in many parts of the developing world, little research has attempted to gauge the relative importance of political economic factors on local-international interaction. The opportunities and difficulties that local leaders have to increase economic competitiveness in an increasingly globalized world need be better understood, especially as more and more countries in the world move towards the decentralization of policy formation.

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