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2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 31 pages || Words: 8127 words || 
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1. Krcmar, Marina., Giles, Steven. and Helme, Donald. "Problem Behavior Syndrome: An Examination of Disordered Eating as Risk Taking Behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p168500_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In this study we explored the relationship between risk-taking behavior, including disordered eating, and the meanings that individuals assign to those behaviors in a sample of incoming college freshmen. The overall goal of this research is to extend research in problem behavior theory by not only looking at the cooccurrence of problem behaviors, but to determine whether common symbolic meanings are associated across those correlations. Overall, there were 2 distinct factors of risk taking. The first included smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, drinking and driving, and risky sex. The second included use of diet pills, amphetamines and other drugs, and dieting to lose weight. We also examined the meanings that individuals associate with risk taking as it related to their own risk taking. Overall, 2 roots emerged: pleasers and independents. The former included more risk taking, such as smoking, drinking, binge drinking, marijuana use, sex without condoms, restricting food, purging (via vomiting or laxatives) and taking diet pills. In addition to these risks, these individuals believed that those who fasted are independent, those who engaged in the risky weight loss behaviors are relaxed, care what others think and get credit for their actions. This pattern suggests people who believe in the social benefits of risk taking. The latter root includes nonsmokers who drink, but do not binge drink. They are nondieters who believe that high risk dieters are independent. This pattern suggests individuals who admire independent behavior.

2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 41 pages || Words: 11282 words || 
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2. Chaisamrej, Rungrat. and Zimmerman, Rick. "Integrating the Theory of Planned Behavior, Altruism, and Self-Construal to Predict Paper Recycling Behavior in Individualistic and Collectivistic Societies: Implications for Communication Campaign Design" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p170802_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study was an effort to uncover 4 major facts: (a) the predictive power of the proposed integrated model, which posits the influence of attitudes (ATT), subjective norms (SN), perceived behavior control (PBC), altruism, and two-types of self-construal on behavioral intentions to recycle paper materials; and (b) the moderating effects of individualism-collectivism (I-C) on the attitudes-intentions relationship and the subjective norms-intentions relationship. Conducted in 2 contrasting cultures, this cross-sectional research consisted of two phases: the TPB elicitation research and the main study. Participants were undergraduate students recruited from 2 major public universities in Thailand and the U.S. The sample size used in the main analysis comprised 417 respondents from Thailand (representing a collectivistic society) and 432 respondents from the U.S. (representing an individualistic society). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to investigate the predictability of the integrated model. Multigroup SEM was implemented to examine the moderating effects of I-C. The results yielded some significant findings enhancing our understanding of paper-recycling intentions of college students in the 2 countries. First, TPB determinants, especially PBC and SN, were potential predictors of paper recycling. Although ATT was not a successful antecedent of paper-recycling intentions in Thailand, it predicted intentions of U.S. participants. Second, altruism was a significant factor explaining ATT and PBC for both samples; it also directly influenced intentions. Finally, 2 types of self-construal significantly and distinctively affected ATT and SN. Findings can benefit communication campaigns targeting audiences in different cultural milieus.

2006 - XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies Words: 398 words || 
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3. krahn, mary jo. "Infants' Looking Behaviors in Relation to Mothers' Behaviors During Mother-Infant Interaction" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies, Westin Miyako, Kyoto, Japan, Jun 19, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p93501_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Abstract: Background and aims: Early interactions between infant and mother jointly contribute to the development of competencies in infants and children not only in areas of cognition, but also in motor skills, social abilities, and language acquisition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the young infant’s role in regulating the sensory input (visual, auditory, and touch stimulation) received from the mother during episodes of interaction with her. Infants seek stimulation until they meet or exceed a threshold of stimulation and can no longer organize it, at which time infants abruptly avoid stimulation. Considering the young infant’s limited motor control and lack of developed locomotion, emerging head control and visual control are the mechanisms available to the infant to move away from stimulation. In this study, the infant’s looking at the mother was considered an approaching behavior and the infant’s looking away was considered a withdrawal behavior. It was this adaptive ability of the infant to regulate sensory input by looking at or away from the mother that was central to this study.


Method: The design was a longitudinal multi-case design. Ten mothers were observed interacting with their infants in their home setting for six consecutive weeks when the infants were aged 5 weeks to 10 weeks. Each observation was videotaped for 4 minutes using two cameras and was later edited into a split-screen image for coding at 3-second intervals. To determine association between the infants looking and the mothers’ behaviors, Gamma values were computed.

Key results: Overall, infants tended to have lower frequency of looking at 5 weeks, increased frequency of looking from 6 weeks to 9 weeks, and decreased looking again at 10 weeks. Infants tended to do more looking (seeking stimulation) when the mother was providing less stimulation. Significant individual differences were found in the level of the integrity in the central nervous systems of these ten full-term infants as early as 5 weeks.

Conclusions: The tendency of an increase in infant looking from the first observation when the infant was 5 weeks old to the second observation when the infant was 6 weeks old is in line with the theorized transformation in neural function thought to begin when the infant is 6 weeks of age. The findings have implications for understanding the development of infants’ early visual attention and interaction, early assessment of infants’ abilities, and early facilitation of mother-infant interaction in at-risk dyads.
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2008 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 25 pages || Words: 6458 words || 
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4. Bianchi, Alison. and Navarre-Jackson, Layana. "Social Exchanges as Behavioral Interchange Patterns: A Test of Behavior-Status Theory in Same- and Mixed-Sex Dyads" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, Jul 31, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p241843_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In this experiment, I examine an application of behavior-status theory to the problem of the relation between exchange and status. I conceptualize a certain class of social exchanges as behavioral interchange patterns, to demonstrate that acts of social exchange have status value during task group interaction independent of the value of the resources used during the exchange. I place this theory’s application within the social exchange cannon. I then test the theory’s two main assumptions concerning salience of BIPs in same-sex, female-female dyads and mixed-sex, female-male dyads. I design an experiment consisting of 10 conditions to test 5 hypotheses derived from behavior-status theory; one hundred and ninety-one subjects participated in this study. Results suggest that this application is successful when dyads are comprised of equal status participants. However, when a status hierarchy based on gender is introduced, status and identity processes interrupt the enactment of the exchange BIPs.

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Pages: 38 pages || Words: 10864 words || 
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5. Orfgen, Tierney. and Silk, Kami. "Rating Accuracy Behavior: A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, Nov 20, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/DOWNLOAD>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p259932_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The current experimental study examined the influences the motivation and behavior of those rating behavior accurately. Of unique interest is the use of an objective and non-dichotomous measure of the outcome behavior of accuracy. Participants (N = 174) were trained to evaluate vignettes of customer service interactions. Structural equation modeling and regression analyses were performed to test the utility of a theory of planned behavior (TPB) model in the area of ratings accuracy. The relationship between behavioral intention and the target behavior was not as strong as suggested by previous tests of the model.

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