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2005 - International Studies Association Pages: 34 pages || Words: 8840 words || 
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1. Earnest, David. "Political Incorporation and Historical Institutionalism: A Comparison of the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p69385_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The practice of enfranchising resident aliens lies at the heart of a theoretical debate among political scientists who study the institutions of sovereignty and citizenship. A number of such scholars cite this practice as evidence of an erosion of both the historical link between the nation and state and of the state's sovereign authority to define its political community. They argue that global norms of democracy and human rights, international governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and even international diplomacy cause states to offer the franchise to resident aliens. This is the transnational thesis. By contrast, other scholars argue that because these voting rights often are limited and discriminatory, they only reinforce the link between nation and state. They argue that states extend voting rights to resident aliens in the same way they earlier enfranchised women and minorities. They cite the importance of interest group politics, cultural understandings of citizenship, institutional venue (judiciary versus legislature), and partisan variables. This is the nationalist thesis. Despite the centrality of this debate to our understanding of sovereignty, citizenship and democracy, however, little is known about the conditions under which this democratic practice will emerge. This paper examines the political incorporation of aliens in three European democracies with widely varying experiences. The Netherlands extended the franchise to noncitizens in 1981 with little opposition; Germany's nascent experiment with noncitizen voting rights ended in 1990 when the Federal Constitutional Court ruled such rights in violation of the Basic Law; and over the last 30 years Belgium has frequently considered such rights but has never enacted them in the face of domestic opposition. Using these three cases, the paper finds considerable support for the nationalist thesis, citing the influence of partisan politics and historical institutional factors; it finds little support, however, for the international and normative factors emphasized by the transnational thesis.

2007 - Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 26 pages || Words: 6771 words || 
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2. Arwine, Alan. and Mayer, Lawrence. "The Emerging Politics of Identity in France and Belgium" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, IL, Apr 12, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p198021_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: We conceptualize and analyze the causes of an emerging politics of identity as distinct from the classic right and supplanting the politics of interests using data from France and Belgium.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 31 pages || Words: 9457 words || 
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3. Paquin, Stephane. "Multi-Level Governance and Foreign Policy: The Case of Canada and Belgium" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p253365_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Sub-state actors are increasingly involved in world affairs. Since 1960 the phenomenon known as paradiplomacy has increased in scope and intensity. Substate actors, like the Canadian provinces and Belgian regions and communities are also increasingly involved in the foreign policy process of the central state. The question is: are these substate actors doing what they shouldto implement the international treaties concluded by the federal state?

2008 - MPSA Annual National Conference Words: 35 words || 
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4. AndrĂ©, GĂ©raldine. "Politic of School Guidance in Belgium: A Socio-Anthropological Point of View" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Palmer House Hotel, Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p268878_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: My paper focuses on the socio-anthropological mechanisms that drive the working-class youth (which means young people from the bottom of social hierarchy) to fields of study that are situated at the bottom of school hierarchy.

2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Words: 37 words || 
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5. Dumitrescu, Delia. "This is My Territory: Election Posters as Local Campaigns Signaling - The Case of France and Belgium" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p311336_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Election posters are a widely used form of democratic campaign communication throughout the world: available comparative research in France and Germany estimates that parties and candidates spend about 20% of their campaign budgets on posters alone. This

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