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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 31 words || 
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1. Archbell, Kristen., Li, Yan. and Coplan, Robert. "“Book Based Beliefs” to “Experience Based Beliefs”: Chinese Pre-service and In-service Teacher Beliefs about Child Misbehaviors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p955154_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Teachers’ beliefs are built on a foundation of professional development acquired during their Bachelor of Education, along with experience in the classroom environment (Farmer et al., 2011). Pre-service teachers’ beliefs are not necessarily based on classroom exposure, but rooted in their post-secondary education (Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2006). Thus, pre-service teacher beliefs may provide insight into the knowledge obtained through Bachelor of Education programs (O’Haver, 2011), and may be primarily booked based. It has been suggested that at the in-service level of teaching compared to the pre-service level, teachers’ beliefs are relatively stable, as they are built not only on pre-service learning, but a significant amount of experience and exposure to the classroom (Fang, 1996; Varuli, 1999; Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2006). Teacher beliefs have both direct and indirect effects on child outcomes at school (Fang, 1996), and therefore are important to examine. However, to date there have been few studies directly comparing the beliefs of pre-service and in-service teachers – and no such studies have been conducted in non-Western Cultures. Due to values in Chinese culture (e.g., self control) it is expected that Chinese teachers would hold negative views towards misbehaviors. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences between pre-service and in-service Chinese kindergarten teachers towards children’s classroom misbehaviors.
Participants from this study were N=826 (22.5% pre-service, 77.5% in-service) kindergarten teachers from Shanghai, P.R. China. Teachers responded to a series of child vignettes depicting children engaging in various forms of classroom misbehaviors (physical aggression, relational aggression, rough play). Following each vignette, teachers’ indicated their behavioral responses (e.g., intervene), emotional reactions (e.g., anger), perceived implications for each child (social, academic), and their own self-efficacy.
Results from a series of mixed repeated measures ANOVA indicated a number of significant differences among pre- and in-service teachers. For example, pre-service teachers reported feeling less prepared to effectively handle child misbehaviors in the classroom as compared to in-service teachers (see Figure 1). Further, pre-service teachers reported that they would be less likely to intervene and would have greater tolerance towards misbehaviors. Some differences emerged that were specific to the form of child misbehavior. For example, in-service teachers appeared to tolerate more, intervene less, and perceived less implications towards relational aggression than pre-service teachers. Other differences in pre-service and in-service teacher beliefs also arose as a function of gender. For example, in-service teachers were more likely to tolerate misbehaviors among depictions of boys compared to girls (see Figure 2). Further, pre-service teachers felt more prepared to effectively handle girl compared to boy misbehaviors. Findings are in support of additional professional development needed at both pre-service and in-service level of teaching. This is essential, as it has been found that in China teachers may disgrace misbehaving students, which may lead to further problems (Chen, French, & Schneider, 2006). Results will be discussed in terms of teaching implications, and professional development, and future directions.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Metzger, Shari., Sonnenschein, Susan., Galindo, Claudia. and Patel, Hinali. "Children’s Beliefs about the Utility of Math and How These Beliefs Relate to Their Home Math Engagement" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p951502_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In order to improve children’s math skills, an educational priority (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008), we need to determine factors that contribute to math learning. Research consistently shows that children’s engagement in home-based math activities predicts their early math skills (Clements & Sarama, 2006; Ramani & Siegler, 2008), which predicts their future math achievement (Duncan, et al., 2007). Children’s beliefs about the importance of math (subjective task value) are also important for math achievement (e.g., Eccles et al., 1993; Mazzacco et al., 2012). However, little research has examined in depth children’s beliefs about the usefulness of math in everyday activities.
This study examined how children in first through fourth grade (N=99) understand what math is, how it is learned, and how it is used (see Table 1 for questions). It also analyzed whether there are grade-related differences in these conceptions. Finally, the associations between beliefs about the utility of math, children’s home-based math engagement, and subjective task value for math were explored.
Children’s responses indicated a view of math that was heavily focused on low level math operations, and math being something that is learned and used primarily in school. Most children (67%) responded that math is calculations (e.g., “it is adding”) and counting (18%). Older children mentioned calculations significantly more than younger children, χ2(3, N=99)=12.36, p=.006.
Although children were aware of how math can be used (M=1.26, SD=0.79, on a 0-3 scale), when asked about specific activities that included math (e.g., playing board games, cooking, etc.), their awareness was quite limited. Older children were significantly more aware than younger ones of the role math played in daily activities, p<.001. Younger children were aware of how math was used in these activities less often (1st graders 30%, 2nd graders 42%) than older children (3rd graders 69%, 4th graders 71%).
Children viewed math as something used primarily by their teachers and themselves, not other adults. When asked who uses math, children mentioned children/classmates (53%) and teachers (43%) more than parents (18%). When asked how they learn math, children mentioned school (74%) more often than parents (27%) or non-school related activities (12%). Older children mentioned school significantly more often than younger children, p<.001.
Children’s frequency of engagement in math activities was not related to their awareness of math in daily activities, with the exception of playing with blocks. Instead, after controlling for grade, their awareness of math in one activity related to their awareness in other activities. Additionally, awareness of how math is used in activities was related to task value, r(97)=.29, p=.003 and usefulness of math, r(97)=.42, p<.001.
These findings suggest that children are able to generalize math utility across activities. The more children are aware of how math is used in their daily activities, the more they believe that math has value and is useful outside of the school context.
Exploring children’s understanding of math and its uses provides insight into the development of children’s math proficiency. Such understanding can be used as the basis for future interventions.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Drover, Samantha. and Sabbagh, Mark. "Young Children’s Understanding of False Belief: P3b Responses to an Implicit False Belief Task" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p961905_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Representational theory of mind (TOM) is the everyday understanding that others’ behaviour is motivated by internal representational mental states such as beliefs, desires and intentions (Wellman, 1990). In the standard false belief task, which traditionally indexes representational TOM, a character places an object in one location, and then leaves the room. During her absence, a second character moves the object to a new location. The first character returns, and children are asked where she will look for the object (Wimmer & Perner, 1983). Children typically pass this task (answering that she’ll look in the first location) by 5 years of age (Amsterlaw & Wellman, 2006).

Over the past 10 years, studies have found that infants and young children succeed on nonverbal versions of the false belief task – their anticipatory gaze and looking time align with an understanding of beliefs (e.g., Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005; Surian & Geraci, 2012;). Some suggest that infants and young children possess a representational TOM, masked by performance limitations, whereas others hold that children’s performance in looking paradigms relies on some other, non-representational mechanism.

To address this debate, we investigated young children’s false belief understanding using a component of the event-related potential: P3b, a positive potential elicited in response to task-relevant unexpected events. This measure is useful because P3b is sensitive to conceptual and representational understandings (Meinhardt et al., 2011; Polich & Criando, 2006), whereas there is evidence that looking time indexes more obligatory, attentional-based responses (Dienes & Perner, 1999).

Thirty children aged 3.5 to 4.5 years who as a group performed poorly on false belief tasks participated along with twenty-five adults aged 18 to 19 years. All participants watched 48 trials of a modified version of a “looking-time” false belief task, and P3b was measured in response to seeing the character search in belief- congruent or incongruent locations. We found a significant age group by outcome interaction. As expected, adults’ P3b responses were stronger when viewing actors look in belief-incongruent locations. In contrast, young children’s P3b responses were stronger when viewing actors look in belief-congruent trials – that is, they were surprised when viewing actors behave in accordance with false beliefs (see Figure 1). Individual differences analyses showed that that the extent to which they were surprised in the belief-congruent trials was related to performance on a battery of executive functioning tasks (Table 1).

The P3b response is non-declarative and thus should be sensitive to “implicit” expectations about how human action is motivated by mental states. The fact that as a group these children showed evidence of being surprised during the belief-congruent trials suggests that they did not have a representational understanding of beliefs. The implications of these results regarding the findings with infant looking time measures will be discussed, as will implications for understanding the mechanisms of false belief development over the preschool years.

2015 - LRA 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Howard, Christy. and Miller, Samuel. "Beliefs Enacted: Examining teacher beliefs and practices in a high poverty school" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the LRA 65th Annual Conference, Omni La Costa Resort and Spa, Carlsbad, CA, Dec 02, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1019602_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2017 - Association of Teacher Educators Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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5. Johnston, Elisabeth. and Ward, Elizabeth. "Findings from the Validation Study of the Elementary Teacher Efficacy Beliefs Instrument-Math (ETEBI-M) and the Elementary Teacher Efficacy Beliefs Instrument-Science (ETEBI-S)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators, Orlando Caribe Royale, Orlando, Florida, Feb 10, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2019-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1168965_index.html>
Publication Type: Multiple Paper Format
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The presenters will share the findings from a validation study of the ETEBI-M and ETEBI-S. Participants will consider implications of these results for teacher preparation programs and professional development providers.

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