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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 31 words || 
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1. Archbell, Kristen., Li, Yan. and Coplan, Robert. "“Book Based Beliefs” to “Experience Based Beliefs”: Chinese Pre-service and In-service Teacher Beliefs about Child Misbehaviors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p955154_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Teachers’ beliefs are built on a foundation of professional development acquired during their Bachelor of Education, along with experience in the classroom environment (Farmer et al., 2011). Pre-service teachers’ beliefs are not necessarily based on classroom exposure, but rooted in their post-secondary education (Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2006). Thus, pre-service teacher beliefs may provide insight into the knowledge obtained through Bachelor of Education programs (O’Haver, 2011), and may be primarily booked based. It has been suggested that at the in-service level of teaching compared to the pre-service level, teachers’ beliefs are relatively stable, as they are built not only on pre-service learning, but a significant amount of experience and exposure to the classroom (Fang, 1996; Varuli, 1999; Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2006). Teacher beliefs have both direct and indirect effects on child outcomes at school (Fang, 1996), and therefore are important to examine. However, to date there have been few studies directly comparing the beliefs of pre-service and in-service teachers – and no such studies have been conducted in non-Western Cultures. Due to values in Chinese culture (e.g., self control) it is expected that Chinese teachers would hold negative views towards misbehaviors. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences between pre-service and in-service Chinese kindergarten teachers towards children’s classroom misbehaviors.
Participants from this study were N=826 (22.5% pre-service, 77.5% in-service) kindergarten teachers from Shanghai, P.R. China. Teachers responded to a series of child vignettes depicting children engaging in various forms of classroom misbehaviors (physical aggression, relational aggression, rough play). Following each vignette, teachers’ indicated their behavioral responses (e.g., intervene), emotional reactions (e.g., anger), perceived implications for each child (social, academic), and their own self-efficacy.
Results from a series of mixed repeated measures ANOVA indicated a number of significant differences among pre- and in-service teachers. For example, pre-service teachers reported feeling less prepared to effectively handle child misbehaviors in the classroom as compared to in-service teachers (see Figure 1). Further, pre-service teachers reported that they would be less likely to intervene and would have greater tolerance towards misbehaviors. Some differences emerged that were specific to the form of child misbehavior. For example, in-service teachers appeared to tolerate more, intervene less, and perceived less implications towards relational aggression than pre-service teachers. Other differences in pre-service and in-service teacher beliefs also arose as a function of gender. For example, in-service teachers were more likely to tolerate misbehaviors among depictions of boys compared to girls (see Figure 2). Further, pre-service teachers felt more prepared to effectively handle girl compared to boy misbehaviors. Findings are in support of additional professional development needed at both pre-service and in-service level of teaching. This is essential, as it has been found that in China teachers may disgrace misbehaving students, which may lead to further problems (Chen, French, & Schneider, 2006). Results will be discussed in terms of teaching implications, and professional development, and future directions.

2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 672 words || 
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2. LIN, CHUN-WEN. and Chen, Wen-Yan. "Comparative analysis between the effect of normative deliberative beliefs and personal deliberative beliefs on organizational citizenship behavior among teachers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p717257_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Organizational citizenship behaviors are imperative to the success of the organization because organizations cannot conjecture entire behaviors requisite for the achievement of organizational goals through formal job descriptions (Katz & Kahn, 1978; Organ, 1990; Organ, Podsakoff, & MacKenzie, 2005). Deliberative democracy described the capability to engage with others on issues of political relevance in a mutual respect manner to reaching a consensus in the public sphere that establishes the basics of citizenship (Merry, 2012). In Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics, the most general goal of deliberative capacity (practical wisdom) whose focus is on what is to be done, serves the moral virtues, including the emotional ones was to pursue actions that would contribute to the public good. The main aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis proposed about the effects of deliberative belief on organizational citizenship behavior, a comparative analysis between the effect of normative deliberative beliefs and personal deliberative beliefs on organizational citizenship behavior among teachers and the mediating role of organizational commitment and leadership support. Self-reported measures of deliberative belief, organizational citizenship behavior, organizational commitment and leadership support were obtained from 202 teachers in Taiwan from 15 senior/vocational high schools in Taiwan.
The results supported Aristorian theory. Structural equation modeling indicated that organizational commitment and leadership support completely mediated the personal deliberative belief and organizational citizenship behavior relation. Deliberation-OCB overall model fit indicated that the model provided an acceptable fit to the sample data (χ2/df=2.42, GFI=.90, TLI=.92, CFI=.93, RMSEA=.08, SRMR=0.06). This model shows that teachers’ personal deliberative beliefs impacted their organizational citizenship behavior (γ=.39, p< .001), but normative deliberative beliefs did not impact teachers’ organizational citizenship behavior significantly. As a result, teacher’s personal deliberative beliefs served as an independent variable for the impact of OCB among senior/vocational high school teachers. In total 18% of the variance in the teachers’ OCB was accounted for by their personal deliberative beliefs. The structural equation modeling produced the following path coefficients: PDB=>OCB=.39, t=3.59, p <.001; NDB=>OCB=0.07, t=0.64, p=.52;, where PDB=>OCB represents the path coefficient between PDB and OCB, NDB=>OCB=0.07 stands for the path coefficient between NDB and OCB. NDB and PDB are correlated significant. The data analysis indicated that the association between personal deliberative beliefs and organizational citizenship behavior was positively related. The findings in this research corresponds well with Aristotle’s views, that is, a high level of personal deliberative beliefs affects teachers’ OCB in a positive way; which supports the Aristotle’s thought which elucidated that inclusion of deliberate choice in the process leading up to action accordance with virtue, for deliberation is necessary to sort out all the circumstances of a situation requiring a response (Aristotle, 1947).
There are inconsistencies between knowledge and conduct for matter of deliberation, which correspond with Aristotelian deliberation which is not simply a matter of knowledge, or character, even mere logical demonstration, but attained a passionate element. In his words, “ethos, pathos, and logos” are the means of rhetoric deliberation leading to moral virtue. ”Pathos” means passion in Greek, being measured by organizational commitment and leadership support in our study. In our study, we also can not underestimate the importance of organizational commitment and leadership support. Therefore, it might be recommended that deliberative pedagogy, deliberative leadership and deliberative governance should be performed in authentic circumferences to promote teachers’ personal deliberative beliefs and thereby, to develop teachers’ “sunesis” (a capacity to judge well) for attaining OCB and pursuit for school goods. Besides, deliberative bodies in educational institution should be established to fulfill the needs of true deliberation. In other words, it was found that personal deliberative beliefs increased in parallel to the increase in teachers’ OCB. Thus, it might be recommended that application of practical deliberation in special situation for particular cases in school in which teachers can use the meaningful deliberative means with “right beliefs ”about the virtue end, not only tutoring normative deliberative knowledge, should be performed. These results have important implications for comparative education attempting to reinforce their teacher’s deliberative belief, as well as those seeking to ameliorate international disparities in deliberation and organizational citizenship behavior.

2007 - WESTERN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION Pages: 18 pages || Words: 5958 words || 
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3. McDermott, Monika., Best, Samuel. and DePinto, Jennifer. "Voters' Beliefs about Homosexual Beliefs, and Voting for Gay Candidates" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the WESTERN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, La Riviera Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada, Mar 08, 2007 <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p176349_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Research into the public's perceptions of homosexual candidates has, in large part, been limited to examination of voter bias against homosexuals, which is then transferred, theoretically, to gay candidates. This paper takes an alternative approach to public reactions to gay candidates -- examining the potential of candidate homosexuality as an information shortcut for voters. Like research into gender and race, this study looks at the potential stereotypes voters hold of gay candidates, and how those assumptions affect their impressions and their choices in hypothetical elections. National experimental survey data demonstrate that voters assume gay male candidates are promoters of a gay rights agenda. Voters then choose between gay and straight candidates based on their own personal support for, or opposition to, gay issues.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 7151 words || 
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4. Hefner, Veronica. "Experiment Investigating Preexisting Beliefs and Reasons to Watch Romantic Comedies on Beliefs, Mood, and Enjoyment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p986326_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study presents the results of a pretest, posttest, multiple message, control group experiment. I investigated whether preexisting romantic beliefs prior to viewing one of three types of movie content (ideal romantic comedy, challenge romantic comedy, control film) played a role in the effect on romantic beliefs, enjoyment, and mood among 358 undergraduate students. I also looked at whether the motivations to view these content made a difference in terms of effects on those outcomes. In general, the results demonstrate that whereas different motivations to view have different implications for effects, preexisting romantic beliefs do not make a difference except that they predict greater enjoyment of ideal romantic comedies. Thus, future research on the effects of romantic comedies and other films should focus on why individuals choose to watch certain types of content and how those motivations influence effects, rather than investigating the preexisting conditions viewers bring with them to the media encounter.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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5. Oktay-Gür, Nese. and Rakoczy, Hannes. "When they pass standard false belief tasks, children also understand the aspectuality of beliefs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p950622_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Theoretical Background
It is commonly assumed that children acquire a full blown meta-representational conception of beliefs and other propositional attitudes around age 4 when they begin to master standard false belief (FB) and related tasks. However, a different line of research has shown that children of this age still fail to understand the essential aspectuality of beliefs and other propositional attitudes, the fact that they refer to objects only under specific aspects (e.g. Apperly & Robinson, 1998, 2003). The empirical situation is thus somewhat paradoxical, some findings arguing for, others against the claim that children acquire a full-blown conception of beliefs around age 4.
In order to resolve this tension, we investigated the relation of children’s performance in standard FB and aspectuality tasks. Some preliminary recent findings suggest that modified tasks of understanding aspectuality might be passed by 4-year-olds (Rakoczy et al., press). The present study followed up on this by testing young children on radically simplified aspectuality and on standard FB tests.
Method
Study 1 tested 3- to 6-year-olds with a standard FB and a novel aspectuality task (Figure 1): children saw an object that was visibly an A (pen) but also a B (rattle) where the latter could only be discovered by appropriate use, and was known by the child but not the protagonist. The pen was first put into box 1. E then took out an object from box 1 so that one could not see it, rattled and said “See the rattle” and put the object into box 2. The test question was “Where will the protagonist look for the pen?”. To answer correctly, children have to understand the aspectuality of the protagonist’s belief: she saw the pen/rattle being transferred to box 2 only as a rattle and therefore believes the pen is still in box 1.
Study 2 (ongoing) follows up by presenting children a protagonist who does not know that two qualitatively identical objects she saw enter a box at two different time points were numerically identical and thus falsely believes there are two objects in the box (Figure 2). The test question is “how many objects does the protagonist believe are in the box?”. Again, in order to answer correctly, the child has to understand the aspectuality of the protagonist’s belief: she saw the object enter the box at different times, but she did not see them as the same object, thus assuming there were different objects and believing there are two objects in the box.
Results
In Study 1, the novel aspectuality task and the standard FB tasks were equally difficult and highly correlated (r=.81, p<0.,01), even when controlling for age and verbal abilities (r=.75, p<0.01). Data collection for study 2 is still ongoing, but we expect the same pattern.
These findings suggest that previous aspectuality tasks might have seriously underestimated young children’s competence due to specific task demands and performance factors, and that children truly acquire a full-blown conception of beliefs and their aspectuality around age 4.

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