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2010 - The Law and Society Association Words: 147 words || 
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1. Duruigbo, Emeka. "Benevolent Failure or a Failure of Benevolence? The World Bank, Shared Sovereignty, and Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Renaissance Chicago Hotel, Chicago, IL, May 24, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p431368_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The presentation will take an interdisciplinary approach to exploring the legal efficacy of international monetary policy-related shared sovereignty arrangements such as the defunct World Bank funded Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project on combating underdevelopment in Sub-Saharan Africa, and to contemplate a framework that ensures such projects are sustainable and revenues used for social development. It will highlight key challenges in the Chad-Cameroon Pipeline Project, especially the inability of international financial institutions such as World Bank Group and state actors to successfully manage complex shared sovereignty arrangements, particularly in weak states in unstable regions. The presentation concludes by considering, in comparative terms, examples of other shared sovereignty arrangements, especially in the developing world, that identify the specific socio-political, economic, structural and legal mechanisms needed to ensure the successful implementation of oil revenue management or natural resource-based shared sovereignty systems in developing nations struggling to develop sustainably and to democratize.

2012 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 261 words || 
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2. Hsu, Funie. "Instructions for Nationhood: Benevolence, Race, and U.S. Education in the Philippines" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Puerto Rico Convention Center and the Caribe Hilton., San Juan, Puerto Rico, <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p569114_index.html>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: On April 7, 1900, President William McKinley issued his “Letter of Instruction” to the Philippine Commission, detailing the guidelines for American colonial governance in the new U.S. colony. Included in these instructions was an order to establish a system of public schools, with English as the medium of instruction, throughout the islands. This paper draws upon the specific topic of “instruction” to investigate the invisibilized legacy of U.S. colonialism in the Philippines. It investigates instructions as 1) an educational practice, and 2) guidelines for organizing the project of U.S. colonialism; each demonstrating the indispensable function of education in U.S. expansion. It explores the intimate relationship between the institute of colonial education and nationhood, particularly in normalizing imperial constructions of the race in the colony. Specifically, this paper examines the establishment of U.S. colonial English instruction in the Philippines. By examining the various levels of instructions mandated and subsequently implemented by the U.S. colonial government, this paper demonstrates how the policy of English instruction was more than an educational directive, it was also a fundamental organizational tool for the racial management of American colonialism. Through analysis of documents from the War Department, the Philippine Commission, and the Bureau of Education, this paper argues that through English instruction, the notion of linguistic coherence was used to manage American expansion and construct a sense of national coherence during the political instability of overseas colonial conquest. Most importantly, this study illuminates how the mandate of English instruction provided a means to articulate a benevolent narrative of U.S. empire, thereby erasing the violence of colonial occupation.

2015 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 236 words || 
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3. Buoye, Thomas. "Imperial Pique and the “Benevolence of Women”: The Politics of Criminal Justice in Eighteen-Century China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Sheraton Hotel & Towers, Chicago, Illinois, <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p951974_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Demonstrating a commitment to Chinese legal institutions and their underlying neo-Confucian imperatives, the rulers of the Qing dynasty embraced the Ming code and the millennia-old principles that infused Chinese law. In fact, Qing emperors became prolific legislators who eventually quadrupled the number of substatutes in the imperial code. Addressing a wide array of social and administrative problems, the “legislative turn” of the early Qing included a spate of regulations that required harsher penalties, including death, for violent and non-violent crimes. Adding more death penalty crimes, which were automatically reviewed at every level of judicial administration, swamped the overburdened judicial bureaucracy. With many death sentences deferred for years, (over ten thousand decisions were pending in 1766) the judiciary was awash in unresolved cases. Political tensions also arose because the review of the death penalty was an arena for both the emperor and provincial governors to demonstrate their neo-Confucian bona fides. Blaming case backlogs on excessive leniency, Qianlong derisively criticized provincial governors for exhibiting the “benevolence of women” by which he meant self-serving gestures of mercy that ignored the larger problem of crime. Despite expressions of imperial pique, political tensions persisted because the crackdown on crime collided head-on with the entrenched principle of leniency. Given the paucity of administrative resources, the compelling ethos of leniency, and the complexity of judicial politics, Qianlong’s browbeating of provincial governors could not resolve the complex contradictions that plagued eighteen-century criminal justice.

2015 - ASALH Centennial Annual Meeting and Conference Words: 245 words || 
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4. Edwards, Janelle. "Worthy Daughters of the Soil: Benevolence and the American West Indian Ladies Aid Society, 1915-1936" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASALH Centennial Annual Meeting and Conference, Sheraton Atlanta Hotel, Atlanta, GA, <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1034838_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: This paper offers a critical analysis of the American West Indian Ladies Aid Society (AWILAS), a Progressive-era New York based benevolent society established by Virgin Island immigrant women. This work pays considerable attention to the role and function of the AWILAS in creating a sense of cultural identity for Virgin Island immigrant women and their surrounding community members. Building upon the scholarship of Nancy Foner, Winston James, and Irma Watkins-Owens, this study also addresses how Virgin Islands immigrants used women’s traditional organizing patterns to mobilize resources, navigate the urban terrain, and respond to their shifting national allegiances from Dutch to American. Part of what scholar Irma Watkins-Owens identified as homeland societies emerging in urban cities throughout the early twentieth century, the AWILAS enabled the mobilization of resources, increased cohesion within ethnically diverse communities, and promoted black immigrants’ participation in electoral politics. Between 1915 and 1936, the AWILAS served as a mechanism for racial uplift, offering burial aid, financial services, and educational opportunities for its members and their families. Attending to the socioeconomic needs of their members, AWILAS created separate and distinct spaces for support and expression of culture. They maintained strong solidarity with several West Indian immigrant groups; sought to secure economic benefits such as jobs and social welfare for each other; and established strong links with the surrounding African American community. Moreover, the membership met the needs of their constituents through a variety of means: cultural assertion, practical aid, political assertions, and Black Nationalism.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Words: 201 words || 
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5. Yi, Se-Hyoung. "Reconciling Empathy with Justice: Deliberative Democracy, Confucian Virtue Ethics, and the “Technique for Cultivating Benevolence”" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 07, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1080770_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: One of the difficult challenges to deliberative democracy is how to find a way of actualizing its democratic ideals in a large-scale mass society where face-to-face communication is infeasible. At this point, Robert Goodin finds a vital role of empathy in collective deliberation. According to Goodin, citizens have a faculty of empathetic imagining, which enables them to consider diverse perspectives those who are not present. This is why “internal-reflective” deliberation is possible within the minds of deliberators without the actual presence of the other.

On the contrary, some theorists, Paul Bloom, for example, find empathy problematic and sometimes even harmful in democratic deliberation. Empathy is too subjective and easily manipulated by emotion. Citizens cannot and should not rely on empathy when they deliberate on public issues. More importantly, empathy may obstruct the collective pursuit of justice, especially when issues were morally and culturally charged.

Drawing on the Confucian concept of “benevolence” and Mengzi’s elaboration of “technique for cultivating benevolence,” I argue that Mengzi suggests a different way to address the conceptual dichotomy between empathy and justice. This new approach, the “technique for cultivating benevolence,” encourages citizens to find collective justice through deliberation while remaining open and tolerant to other perspectives and possibilities.

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