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2017 - 4S Annual Meeting Words: 237 words || 
1. Wanderer, Emily. "Plasticity and Possibility in Regenerative Biology: Model Organisms and New Human Biologies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Boston MA, Aug 30, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-02-23 <>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Biologists studying developmental and regenerative biology are exploring new possibilities for the plasticity of human biology; in this paper, I analyze recent research that makes the claim that human bodies have hidden capabilities for regeneration and reconfiguration. Biologists making these arguments about the plasticity and potential of human bodies draw on cross species comparisons and model organisms, particularly the axolotl salamander, to suggest new possibilities for the plasticity of human capabilities and ways in which injury, aging, sex, and reproduction might be transformed. Axolotls, a salamander native to Mexico, can regenerate a remarkable range of body structures, including entire limbs and tails, eye and heart tissues, and the central nervous system. They can also be induced to change sexes, among their other unusual biological capabilities. Drawing on fieldwork in Mexico, scientific papers, and informal communications among the community of scientists who use axolotls as model organisms, this paper analyses how axolotls are reinterpreted not as exceptional, but rather as models demonstrating that regeneration and plasticity are fundamental biological processes that should be considered potential attributes of human bodies as well. This paper considers what it means to interpret both human and axolotl bodies as plastic and flexible, particularly as the extinction of the axolotl in the wild in 2014 demonstrated the limits to their own biological flexibility. What are the moral and ethical dimensions of plasticity and the implications of this research for human and animal life?

2008 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 122 words || 
2. Cooper, Jonathon. "Biological Inroads to Criminology: Assessment of the Status of Biological Correlates among Criminologists over 20 Years" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, St. Louis Adam's Mark, St. Louis, Missouri, Nov 11, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-02-23 <>
Publication Type: Poster
Abstract: Lombroso, often called the father of criminology, explicitly integrated biological and evolutionary concepts into his general theory of criminals; this approach to understanding criminal behavior persists among European criminologists. However, criminologists in the United States have generally followed the Chicago School of criminology, preferring social explanations for criminal behavior over biologically informed explanations. Nevertheless, the biological sciences have played an increasingly important part of criminological explanations over the past thirty years among American criminologists. This study sought to assess the current status of biological correlates, including IQ, genetics, hormones, evolutionary psychology, and neurology among criminologists through a recent electronic survey of the 2007 ASC membership. Findings are compared to similar questionnaires surveying the 1986 ASC membership and the 1997 ASC membership.

2009 - 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions Words: 359 words || 
3. Frow, Emma. "Building BioBricks: The Dynamics of Standardizing Biological Parts and Scientific Practice in Synthetic Biology" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Crystal City, VA, <Not Available>. 2019-02-23 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Standardization lies at the very heart of recent attempts to engineer biology. The ‘BioBrick’ approach to synthetic biology represents an effort to develop a new structure and conceptual framework for molecular biology, one that prioritises the standardization of biological parts, tools and practices as a means to facilitate the development of new applications. The term ‘BioBrick’ itself is emblematic of this approach, and reflects the hybrid biological–engineering character of this emerging field. This paper takes as a starting point the question: what is involved in making a BioBrick? Drawing on a mixed-methods approach, it traces the ways in which attempts to re-classify biological systems into categories such as ‘Bricks,’ ‘parts,’ ‘devices’ and ‘chassis’ are occurring in parallel with changes in the structure and practices of the scientific community.

In addition to the materials and techniques required to construct a BioBrick, there is need for shared understanding and agreement over what a BioBrick is — its definition, function and design — as well as an appreciation of its usefulness and value. New spaces and activities are being developed to support and manage these negotiations; the re-classification of biological parts seems to require a parallel restructuring of the scientific community. Activities with explicit orientations towards BioBricks include proof-of-concept demonstrations such as the annual iGEM competition, the creation of new interdisciplinary networks and research institutes, the establishment of international standards working groups and formal standard-setting procedures, and the development of physical and virtual BioBrick repositories. Each of these activities provides space for negotiation and discussion of the BioBrick approach, necessary for securing the support (intellectual, material, financial) needed to bring BioBricks into being.

How, then, is the development of standardized BioBricks being influenced by these activities? Since the initial design standard put forward in 2002, at least four other BioBrick standards have been proposed and are now being actively debated. These standards emanate from laboratories with different disciplinary backgrounds, and incorporate different visions for what synthetic biology might entail. Viewed this way, the negotiation of BioBrick standards represents far more than a technical debate — it is both being shaped by and stands to profoundly shape the social world of synthetic biology.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 25 pages || Words: 9631 words || 
4. Kelle, Alexander. "Biological Weapons Disarmament: The USA and the Contestation of Norms Against Biological Weapons, 1991 – 2005" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-02-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The development, production and use of biological weapons (BW) is prohibited by international treaties. Details of this prohibition have been codified in the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972, which forms the core of the BW control regime and contains the core norms of the regime. This paper follows a reflexive approach to international norms, in which norms are not immutable, but subject to change over time and in which certain social practices can lead to norm contestation and change. Clearly such a norm contestation is more likely to have an impact on regime evolution if the norms are contested by a great power like the United States of America, rather than a norm contestation by, say Belgium.
Applying such a reflexive approach to the norms of the biological weapons (BW) prohibtion regime, the paper will proceed in four steps. It will first provide a brief outline of the conceptual underpinnings of the approach to norms of international regimes and their contestation. Second, it will describe the normative structure of the BW prohibition regime as it presented itself during the 1990s. This will be followed by an analysis of social practices within the USA, as they manifested themselves in discursive interventions by actors in the political system . The fourth step will trace the impact of this norm contestation on the international level, where the social practices to be analysed will focus on the negotiations for a Compliance Protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), their collapse and the setting-up of the so-called “New Process” to strengthen the effectiveness of the BW regime. The paper will conclude with a (preliminary) assessment of the implications of the norm contestation through the US on the international level for the future of the BW prohibition regime and its normative structure.

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