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2012 - BISA-ISA JOINT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE "DIVERSITY IN THE DISCIPLINE: TENSION OR OPPORTUNITY IN RESPONDING TO GLOBAL" Pages: unavailable || Words: 4866 words || 
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1. Idil Oztig, Lacin. "Why do Border Guards Shoot? An Analysis of Border Control Strategies which Target Illegal Border Crossers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the BISA-ISA JOINT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE "DIVERSITY IN THE DISCIPLINE: TENSION OR OPPORTUNITY IN RESPONDING TO GLOBAL", Old Town district of Edinburgh, Edinburgh Scotland UK, Jun 20, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p600095_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Once states decide to reinforce their borders, there is an enormous variation in border control strategies. Some border control strategies are strengthened with electric fences, militarization, cross-border cooperation and push-back policy. Other border control strategies are reinforced with shoot to kill policy. This paper seeks to answer why some border control strategies are based on shoot to kill policy and others not.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 5208 words || 
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2. Lubben, Ben. "Stopping the Flow: What border security measures can stop personnel & material from crossing the border?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 07, 2016 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1078874_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: To date states have not paid enough attention to border security as part of a comprehensive counterinsurgency plan. An effective counterinsurgency plan is comprised of many crucially different elements, one such element, although far from the only one, is border security. Denying external sanctuary and maintaining a secure border will allow a state to prevent personnel and material from reaching the insurgents. Thus starving the insurgency of the personnel and material needed to wage an insurgency. So what border security measures can a state take to stop the flow of personnel and material from crossing the border and into insurgent hands? This article, using a comparative military historical approach, examines insurgencies in Algeria, Rhodesia, Afghanistan and Vietnam in an effort to answer this question. It also examines Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan where the outcome is still in question. The article then closes with four suggestions that a state can take to secure the border during an insurgency.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 223 words || 
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3. Cos-Montiel, Francisco. "The Other Borders. Changes in Gender and Ethnic Relations during Migration across the US-Mexico Border" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p252666_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Migration is a topic which has gained support and legitimacy in the agenda of international development and one that has been studied from different angles. The economic impact of remittances and migrant workforce in particular has received a lot of attention. However there are some aspects which have close connections to economic and political aspects of migration that have not been studied in depth. One of those aspects refers to the impact that migration has on gender relations which in many cases crosscuts with ethnicity. There is ample evidence that proves that gender and ethnic inequality hinders development and how better opportunities for women have a positive impact on development outcomes. This paper attempts to look at the positive changes in gender and ethnic relations and its impact on development outcomes. Many studies have focused on the difficulties experienced by migrant workers and the violations to their human rights. However this paper gives a different glance to the phenomena. It argues that migration across the borders can have positive changes in gender and ethnic relations which in turn have positive effect on rights, resources and voice with it respective positive impact on economic performance and good governance. Thus this paper looks at those gender and ethnic relations (and changes) that allow or limit capabilities and functionings during migration in Mexico and the States.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 31 pages || Words: 13497 words || 
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4. Moulin, Carolina. "Borders of Solidarity: Everyday Experiences of Mobility at the Tri-Border area of Brazil, Peru and Colombia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p254526_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper aims at displacing ideas of politics in IR, usually centered around the inside/outside distinction, by analyzing the political processes involved in discussions on displacement among transversal subjects in border zones. Borders are central to the spatial, territorial imagination of IR. However, borders are also historical and contextual practices, situated in space and time, but increasingly, as Balibar remarks, 'no longer situated at the borders at all' (2002). I take the border as both a material, localized experience, but mostly as a symbolic site of construction of otherness and difference. I focus on refugees, asylum seekers and migrants as groups, traditionally constructed as significant others, for whom the border has become a life-defining moment/space, a condition of existence, a 'place where one resides' (Balibar, 2002, p.83).In 2004, Latin American Countries signed the Mexico Declaration on Refugee Protection, in which they made an explicit commitment to devise mechanisms for fostering 'borders of solidarity' within the region. I start from a discussion of the implications of thinking about borders as zones of solidarity in order to analyze the political negotiations and experiences of displacement among refugees, asylum seekers and migrants in the border between Brazil, Colombia and Peru. I discuss the relations between these groups and local and international officials, NGOs and social movements in Tabatinga, a small village in the heart of the Amazon Forest (on the Brazilian side of the Tri-Border) where life in displacement has become a norm. By unveiling the politics of this border zone, I seek to critically assess the implications of everyday experiences of mobility to the territorial imagination of the state and its borders. I argue that there is a need to rethink the border as a place of misunderstandings, contestation and conflict, but also as a zone of cultural encounters, of memory, of hopes, of potentially new political horizons and of important continuities as well. In that sense, the paper strives to contribute to the current scholarship on the non-spatiality of border zones and to the reclaiming of everyday practices as necessarily political experiences.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Words: 159 words || 
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5. Ordonez, Karina. "Modeling the U.S. Border Patrol Tucson Sector for the Deployment and Operations of Border Security Forces" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p179831_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Illegal cross-border activity is a severe homeland defense and security problem along the international Southwest border. The issue of illegal human smuggling is not new to the United States-Mexico border or to law enforcement agencies; however, the phenomenon is rising and human smugglers are adjusting to law enforcement tactics. This paper has three objectives. First, it describes and identifies the fundamental dimensions of U.S. Border Patrol operations in the busiest, most vulnerable section of the border. Second, it integrates prominent border security factors into a mathematical predictive model -- the Arizona-Sonora Border (ASB) Model ? that provides an illustration of possible border security operational strategies and the outcome apprehension probability of migrants given the implementation of various operational strategies. Last, this paper seeks to provide a comprehensive picture of the complex dynamics along the USBP Tucson Sector. This picture highlights the primary challenges facing policymakers in developing innovative policies that will minimize illegal cross-border activity and secure the homeland.

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