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2008 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 17 pages || Words: 5376 words || 
1. Duque, Richard. "Is the Internet Accelerating Brain Drain and Brain Waste or is it Creating Opportunities for Brain Gain and Brain Circulation?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, Jul 31, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: I propose to research the relationships between Internet Infrastructure, development and brain drain. Asymmetrical global development has resulted in a migration of the best and brightest from the South to the North, magnifying the development gap among regions over time. Recently brain gain and brain circulation arguments have suggested that through digital Diaspora networks expatriated human capital can engage in capacity building in home nations. The asymmetrical penetration and support of Internet across development spheres though suggests some caution in assuming that Diaspora Networks are uniformly distributed across all nations and all fields. Certain fields in particular nations are supported over others owing to economic emphasis. Fields that could diversify dependent economies are located at the high end of the brain drain continuum. During the globalization of the Internet, the United States has experienced a dramatic increase in immigration even after September 11th. Aside from individual level factors, a variety of macro push and pull mechanisms motivate migration choices. This research combines individual level data with composite change variables that measure the difference between home and host nations’ development and Internet indices. The research question guiding this proposed research asks: Is the Internet facilitating all categories of immigration or is it acting as a focused conduit for high-end brain drain? A variety of databases will be accessed during this research including those compiled by the NSF and the World Bank.

2010 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 5088 words || 
2. Sun, Xiao-e. "China’s Talent Flow: Brain Drain, Brain Circulation, or Brain Gain?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Atlanta and Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, GA, Aug 13, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper argues that China has experienced brain drain quantitatively since 1.2 million Chinese students and scholars went abroad but only about 170,000 Chinese professionals have returned (Ye 2008). However, the rapid development of Chinese education, and science and education illustrates that China has benefited from the outflow of its talent despite this quantitative of loss. In other words, China presents a strong case of brain circulation and brain gain in that a considerable number of Chinese professionals overseas contribute to Chinese education, science and technology by participating in or returning to China in mature stage of their careers. As a matter of fact, this pattern becomes more salient after the American financial collapse in 2008 because the number of Chinese students and professionals going abroad for further education and career advancement was surpassed for the first time by the number of returned professionals. This paper examines Chinese professionals in the U.S. as a case study to contend that China has managed to benefit from migration of its talent substantially despite of the big number of outflow of its professionals.

2015 - 4S Annual Meeting – Denver Words: 236 words || 
3. Zachary, G. Pascal. "“Keeping Big Brains Closer to Home”: Computer Science, Brain Circulation and the Emergence of Indigenous Innovation in Uganda" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting – Denver, Sheraton Downtown, Denver, CO, <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Abstract: Africa’s loss of science and technology professionals, long viewed as a classic case of “brain drain,” has been supplanted in some parts of the sub-Saharan by a new pattern of “brain circulation,” where scientists and engineers build careers in places of origin while maintaining long-term relationships with techno-science centers in the U.S. and Europe. In this paper, I explore benefits of the shift for the emergence of indigenous innovation and Computer Science (CS) research in Kampala, Uganda.
Drawing on interviews with more than 20 PhD. computer scientists at two universities in Kampala (one public, one private) I describe emerging ways in which scientific practices are being redefined in East Africa. While the loss of highly trained scientists, engineers and bio-medical professionals remains a challenge for the sub-Saharan region, the city of Kampala has retained scientific talent through cooperative efforts of the Ugandan government, civil society and transnational university networks. With help from partners in CS departments in Dutch universities, the number of doctorate holders in CS working in Uganda surged to more than 25 in 2015 from only one in 2000. The experience of these computer scientists suggests that new patterns are emerging for scientific expertise and indigenous innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. One implication: future CS research may better reflect the realities of urban Africa and better engage the needs of Africans while meeting global standards of excellence in computer science.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 8 pages || Words: 2573 words || 
4. Mukomel, Vladimir. "Trends and Conditions of Brain Drain and Brain Circulation within in the Post-Soviet area: Russia and CIS Countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Several key topics are discussed in the report: the economic and social context of the skilled labor force circulation with the post-Soviet area; factors that determine migrants’ choice of a state of immigration; employment patterns of the highly skilled labor from CIS countries in Russia, their wages and scope of their remittances; the role of educational migration; social, cultural and institutional aspects of immigrants-intellectuals’ integration in Russia. Fragmentation of the post-Soviet area along the North-South line defines various patterns of the highly skilled labor’s movements that can be described as the brain drain and the brain circulation. Within limits of the North brain circulation predominates while the brain drain is specific for the North-South dimension. Decrease of differentiation among standards of living in a donor state and the recipient state is the decisive factor of transition from the brain drain to the brain circulation.The emphasis is made on steams of intellectual immigration from CIS countries to Russia. Coming to conclusion that social and economic development of Russia determines a stable internal demand on highly skilled labor of migrants, the author examines factors that contribute to the explosive growth in intellectuals’ influx into Russia from CIS countries. The author provides am estimate of scopes and spheres of employment, wages and remittances of various categories of intellectual migrants in Russia.Finally, the author analyzes consequences that changes in Russia’s immigration policy transformation in 2007 have for the highly skilled immigrants from CIS countries: implementation of the state program of compatriots’ repatriation, liberalization of access to the Russian labor markets granted to immigrants from CIS countries and of the legal regime of migrants’ staying/residing in Russia. The author concludes that the key link of Russia’s migration policy is to be politics of the highly skilled immigrants’ integration.

2016 - ASEH Annual Conference Words: 282 words || 
5. Russell, Edmund. "History in a Brain Scanner: How a Historian and Neuroscientists Studied the Impact of Environments on Brains Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASEH Annual Conference, Westin Seattle, Seattle, WA, <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: This paper aims to do three things that might make historians uncomfortable. First, it introduces the idea of history as an experimental discipline. Historians usually take what we find in the way of evidence, but why not, on occasion, do experiments to help us understand the past? Second, it describes one method for doing experiments in a nascent field, neurohistory. It summarizes the author’s experience in joining a psychology laboratory, defining a research question of mutual interest, carrying out experiments on environmental cognition using a brain scanner (a technique called fMRI, for functional magnetic resonance imaging), and publishing the results in a scientific journal. Third, it presents the findings of that collaborative research, locates them in environmental history, and suggests that environmental neurohistory might become a field.

A starting point for the research was a question: how can neuroscience help us understand history, especially environmental history? A central idea was that brains have been integral to human history (they are essential for thought and action), so it behooves us to understand how brains function. A related idea is that understanding brains has the potential to improve life today. Environmental psychologists have argued that seeing nature improves health and recovery from illness, but the mechanism has been unclear. Do natural and built environments affect health differently by making different demands on neural circuits? How might one use these findings to improve health facilities, such as hospitals? We found that imagining unhealthful environments placed more demands on neural circuits than healthful environments. How might we use these findings to understand environmental history? This paper essays answers to these and other questions.

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