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2003 - International Communication Association Pages: 33 pages || Words: 9669 words || 
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1. Storr, Juliette. "Reflections on the Past, Questions of the Future--Public Service Broadcasting: A Case Study of The Bahamas Broadcasting System," Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott Hotel, San Diego, CA, May 27, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2020-02-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p111594_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The broadcasting history of The Bahamas parallels the history and development of the country. The British introduced broadcasting to the colony in 1937. It was based on the British public service model. When The Bahamas dismantled colonization with independence from Britain in 1973, the broadcasting system retained the structure that was left by the British. From its inception broadcasting was state-owned, a condition that remained in effect until 1993. Throughout its seventy-two years of history, broadcasting in The Bahamas has faced numerous changes and challenges. Today, perhaps its greatest challenge is staying economically viable and aesthetically appealing to local audiences. This article examines four significant periods of growth in the history and development of broadcasting in the Commonwealth of The Bahamas from its inception in 1930 to the beginning of private commercial radio broadcasting in 1993.

2003 - International Communication Association Pages: 29 pages || Words: 8803 words || 
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2. Blevins, Jeffrey. and Brown, Duncan. "Broadcast Ownership Regulation in a Border Era: An Analysis of how the U.S. Federal Communications Commission is Shaping the Debate on Broadcast Ownership Limits" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott Hotel, San Diego, CA, May 27, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2020-02-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p112136_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examines the way the U.S. Federal Communications Commission is approaching its review of broadcast ownership regulations. We focus our analysis on how the twelve studies the FCC used in its review focus predominantly on economic aspects of the issue. This is troubling because it appears that the notion of the “public interest” may be relegated to questions regarding market efficiencies in this debate, as well as future policymaking decisions.

2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 44 pages || Words: 12350 words || 
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3. Bates, Benjamin. and Wells, Scott. "Broadcaster Rights and the Public Interest: A Social Economic Analysis of the WIPO’s Draft Broadcast Treaty" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 24, 2007 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p168585_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The WIPO is in the process of drafting a proposed "Treaty on the Protection of Broadcast Organizations" with the goal of beginning ratification in 2007. The proposed treaty seeks to protect broadcasters by granting them a set of exclusive rights to control distribution and use of broadcasts, mirroring current intellectual property rights. While there are a number of grounds on which to challenge the value of the Treaty, there has been little consideration of whether the Treaty will actually "protect" broadcasters by enhancing the value of their signals, and if so, whether that added value is overshadowed by a loss of social welfare. This paper applies a social economic approach to the various proposed rights, and finds that much of the potential value is likely to be offset in the long term by declines in the demand and use of their signals. Further, most "rights" will also come at the expense of other groups, resulting in an overall loss of social welfare.

2011 - BEA Pages: unavailable || Words: 5760 words || 
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4. Vogel, Richard. "The Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act--An Undue Burden Upon Broadcasters" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the BEA, Las Vegas Hilton, Las Vegas, NV, Apr 09, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p482632_index.html>
Publication Type: Open Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act (BDEA), signed into law by George W. Bush in 2006 pushed potential fines for indecency to $325,000 per incident. At the same time, the F.C.C. has given inconsistent and vague definitions of what is indecent. While the 2010 Fox v F.C.C. decision has at least temporarily negated the Commission’s ability to enforce its indecency policy, the fines for indecency remain.
For several decades now, the courts have used an undue burden rationale as criterion for negating several laws and regulations. This paper will analyze the undue burden standard as defined by Planned Parenthood v Casey and through various F.C.C. rulings. The criteria for what qualifies a law or regulation as an undue burden will be examined. This paper concludes that the cumulative and/or individual effects of the fines and the vague and inconsistent definitions of indecency have led to a chilling effect and the existence of a chilling effect may be sufficient evidence to find that the BDEA constitutes an undue burden upon broadcasters.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 7347 words || 
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5. Teer-Tomaselli, Ruth. "Empire and Broadcasting in the Interwar Years:Towards a Consideration of Public Broadcasting in the British Dominions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p984138_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The paper identifies the ambivalent, contradictory identities of the English-speaking listeners in the far-flung outreaches of the Empire in the period between the two world wars, who forged complex identities supporting aspects of the British Empire, while nurturing notions of independence with a rapidly changing political, economic and cultural dispensation that made up the ‘British World’ in the interwar years. The focus remains on the establishment of national public service broadcasts in three of the four original British ‘Dominions’, Canada, Australia and South Africa, and specifically their interaction with the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) during the founding years of public broadcasting in those countries. The research delves into the policies and circumstances that drove this co-operation, and situates them in the context of the larger collaboration between fledging broadcasters within the interwar period of the British Empire.

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