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2013 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 157 words || 
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1. Roh, Myunghoon. "Assessing the Differential Effects of Adolescents’ Self-control, Gender, Age, and Race on Their Three Different Bullying Behaviors: Verbal, Physical, and Relational Bullying, under Each Schools’ Presence of Bullying Prevention Program for U.S. Schools" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Nov 14, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p664653_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This research examines the role of each school’s bullying prevention programs in predicting bullying behavior among U.S. adolescents. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the relations between individuals’ (age, gender, race, and self-control) and schools’ characteristics. Data were analyzed using a two-level model based on 9,227 U.S. adolescents nested within 227 schools. After adjusting for age, gender, race, and adolescents’ low self-control factors, presence of bullying prevention program showed a non-significant association with three different bullying behaviors. Bullying prevention program predicted between-school variation in three different bullying behaviors, and the program at the school level did not reduce the risk for three types of bullying. However, adolescents’ demographics and self-control factors at the individual level predicted the risk for three different bullying behaviors. The present study suggests that the adolescents’ self-control factors may be a key in predicting their bullying behaviors and bullying prevention program in each school needs to more focus on adolescents’ self-control factors.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 494 words || 
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2. Pouwels, J. Loes., Scholte, Ron., van Noorden, Tirza. and Cillessen, Antonius. "Interpretations of Bullying by Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims in Interactions at Different Levels of Abstraction" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p932528_index.html>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: Social Information Processing (SIP) theory proposes that children develop general interpretation styles for future social events based on past social experiences (Crick & Dodge, 1994). Previous research has shown associations between interpretations of social situations and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. For example, some studies have found associations between involvement in bullying and hostile attributions of intent (e.g. Camodeca et al. 2003). The current study investigates whether bullies, victims, bully-victims, and uninvolved children interpret human social interactions differently in terms of bullying, and whether this generalizes to the interpretation of bullying in animal and abstract figure interactions as well. We expected that the bullying interpretations are the strongest for victims an bully-victims, because they encounter the most negative bullying situations. In addition, we expected bullies to interpret as much bullying behavior in social situations as uninvolved children, because they show higher levels of social cognition and proactive aggression, and may therefore experience the bullying situations as less negative than victims and bully-victims. We furthermore expect the effect to generalize from ambiguous interactions of humans to interactions of animals and abstract figures.
Participants were 390 children (Grade 4-6) who completed self-report measures of bullying and victimization (Solberg & Olweus, 2003). In addition, we assessed to what extent children interpreted 24 positive, negative, and ambiguous video fragments of interactions between humans, animals, and abstract figures as bullying. After each video fragment, children were asked to rate nine behaviors (including bullying behavior) on a scale ranging from 1 to 100, indicating what happened in the fragment according to their perception.
Results showed that bully-victims reported more bullying in ambiguous human fragments than victims and uninvolved children. Bullies did not differ from either group. The findings may be explained by bully-victims encountering more bullying situations overall as compared to the other groups. They are involved as a victim in some situations and as a bully in other situations. Findings imply that intervention and prevention programs may specifically want to target bully-victim’s distorted interpretations of bullying in order to reduce their risk for the initiation and maintenance of bully-victim behavior.
In addition, associations between children’s involvement in bullying and interpretations of bullying generalized across levels of abstraction. Bully-victims perceived more bullying than victims and uninvolved children in ambiguous human, animal and abstract figures interactions. This implies that bully-victim’s past social experiences might lead to changes in schemas. For bully-victims, schemas of bullying may be particularly accessible given their experiences. When the schema of bullying is accessible, a broad range of social behaviors may be interpreted as bullying. Simultaneously, alternative interpretations for the behaviors will be inhibited. This would suggest that their bullying schemas may be used to interpret many situations in addition to familiar social situations, indicating that their bias in interpretations of bullying are generalized across various levels of abstraction. Future research needs to test the generalizability of other SIP biases, such as hostile attributions of intent, and the impact of generalization of SIP biases on children’s real life interactions with peers.

2012 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 75 words || 
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3. Huck, Jennifer. and Edwards, Melissa. "Bullying in College: How it Connects to Deviance, Crime, and Past Bullying Experiences" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Nov 14, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p577272_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study explores the college student's experience with bullying and their perceptions of how past bullying relates to current bullying. The characteristics and types of bullying will be discussed including verbal, physical and cyber bullying. Students from a small, private university completed a questionnaire about their past and current bullying experiences to develop an appreciation for the types of bullying that occurs on this campus as well as a connection to other deviance and crime.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 8317 words || 
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4. Pavlich, Corey., Rains, Steve. and Segrin, Chris. "The Nonverbal Bully: Effects of Shouting and Conversational Distance on Perceptions of Bullying Intensity" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p983630_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The current study investigates how people perceive the intensity of a bullying situation when nonverbal elements of conversational distance and volume are manipulated. One of the major characteristics of bullying behavior is aggression. Aggression is commonly seen in a bully’s vocalic behavior and, in particular, increased volume. Interpersonal distance is another nonverbal behavior that is easily perceived but may go unnoticed in bullying interactions. Patterson’s sequential model of arousal (1976; 1982) is used as a foundation to explain the effects of speaking volume and distance between a bully and a victim on third-person perceptions of bullying intensity. Bullying is predicted to be perceived as most intense when the distance between the bully and victim is short and the bully speaks loudly

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 502 words || 
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5. Bradshaw, Catherine., Pas, Elise. and Zablotsky, Benjamin. "Is Bullying on the Rise?: Examining Eight-Year Trends in Bullying and Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Youth in Grades 4-12" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p962349_index.html>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: Increased media attention on bullying has led some people to believe that the rates are on the rise. Yet, there have been few large-scale school-based studies examining trends in bullying over multiple years. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying behaviors and attitudes between 2005 and 2012 using a population-based sample of students in grades 4-12. Specifically, we examined longitudinal trends in 22 indicators of bullying and bullying-related attitudes and behaviors in a population-based sample of youth over eight consecutive years. Consistent with Robers et al. (2013) and Molcho et al. (2009), we anticipated that there would be slight improvements in the rates of bullying over time, except for cyberbullying, which we anticipated would have increased due to greater availability of smart phones and other handheld devices among youth (Purcell & Lenhart, 2010). We also explored whether the variation in bullying prevalence was functionally associated with school-level covariates. Consistent with the ecological model and prior research on school context, we hypothesized that rates of bullying would vary as a function of school contextual factors, namely school size and school level (i.e. middle schools relative to elementary schools; Bradshaw, et al., 2007; Nansel, et al., 2001; Robers, et al., 2012; Wang, et al., 2009).
Data come from a university/school district partnership project aimed at assessing rates of bullying and providing information to principals to inform data-based decision making. Youth self-reports on 22 indicators of bullying behaviors were collected from a total of 173,587 students in 109 schools across 8 years. The data were collected annually through an on-line data system via an anonymous self-report survey. The data were weighted to reflect the school population; longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes over time. There were 15 statistically significant slopes, thereby indicating statistically significant change over time (see Tables 1 and 2). Specifically, being victimized (in general), as well as being victimized by being pushed, hit, threatened, and having rumors spread decreased significantly. The prevalence of perpetrating bullying generally as well as specifically via pushing and threats, as well as witnessing bullying, ever being picked on, and perceiving bullying as problematic in schools all decreased. Furthermore, fewer students reported that they would fight back when bullied and fewer youth reported that bullies were popular over time and more students reported feeling safe at school. The only undesirable trend detected was fewer students reported that adults were doing enough to prevent or stop bullying in the school over time.
In summary, the 22 multilevel covariate-adjusted models indicated a significant reduction in bullying related concerns on 13 indicators, an increase in feelings of safety at school, but also a decreased perception that adults were doing enough about bullying at school. Taken together, the prevalence rates of bullying and attitudes generally decreased over this 8 year period. This line of research has important implications for programs and policies affecting youth and school safety. More research is needed to determine the impact of the recent policies and increased public attention on these trends.

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