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2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 35 pages || Words: 15202 words || 
1. Chambers, Samuel. "The Body: Reconstructing Judith Butler’s Theory of Sex/Gender" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-06-18 <>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: Butler refuses to fix the body as primary, as antecedent to discourse. ‘The body posited as prior to the sign is always posited or signified as prior’ (1993: 30). We cannot have any access to the body except through discourse. Yet, this does not mean that the body can be reduced to discourse. Indeed, the body exceeds discourse, and reworks the very norms that would constrain it. Butler has as little patience for an idealism that would reduce all matter to signs as she does with a materialism that would reductively separate matter from signs. The former ignores the fact that matter cannot be created by discourse; the latter ignores the fact that matter is always and only materialised through discourse. Both remain blind to the simple truth that all signs are themselves material (1993: 15, 30).
For Butler, therefore, the body can never serve as an ontological foundation (Stone 2005: 11). The body cannot ground a theory of feminist politics any more than it can ground a theory of gender. Nonetheless, to say this is not to dismiss the body, nor is it to ignore the critics’ constant question, ‘what about the body?’ (1993: ix). While Butler rejects any theory grounded in an ontology of the body, she still finds something fundamental about bodies: bodies, for Butler, are vulnerable. A body is both dependent upon others and subject to violation by another, by others. Through our bodies we always remain exposed to others, and our very vulnerability ties us to others (2004b: 20, 22). In this sense, and only in this sense, we find something primary about the body, something fundamental, undeniable. This paper will demonstrate that Butler takes the body just as seriously – and, at times, perhaps much more seriously – than her critics.
The problem is not the body per se. What is lacking in Butler’s politico-theoretic project is not an attentiveness to the potential pain and suffering of bodies: Butler has been centrally concerned with this issue from the very beginning of her work. Rather, Butler’s critics ask after the materiality of the body, I think, because they are concerned about what Butler’s theory of gender does with/to sex. Butler’s critics, both implicitly and explicitly, worry most about the primacy and materiality of sex, and the epistemological grounding that it provides. More to the point: if sex is really gender ‘all the way down’, then is there no such thing as sex? And if everything is gender, then does the body no longer matter? I will try to reconstruct this implicit logic of the critics, to illustrate that the criticisms about ‘the body’ stem from a much deeper concern about the place of sex in Butler’s radical theory of gender.
As an answer to her critics, the title Bodies that Matter contains within it the straightforward assertion that bodies do matter. But the word ‘matter’ in the title also clearly carries a double meaning. In the text, Butler articulates a theory of materialisation: she shows how bodies matter in the sense of becoming materialised through discourse. Perhaps, however, what her critics want most of all is to know how, within a radical constructivist theory of gender, the body matters in the sense of being important, proving significant for both theory and politics. Butler was undoubtedly cognisant of the two senses of matter within the title that she herself chose. And yet, to answer this question concerning the second sense of matter requires a further exploration than Butler has explicitly provided of the role of ‘sex’ within a theory that proves sex to be subject to gender norms. If sex no longer serves as the ontological ground that gives rise to gender, then does sex simply disappear? And if it does not, then what role will it play?
Working with both the resources supplied by Butler herself (her writings) and those called on by her (the writings of Foucault and Beauvoir), this essay will theorise the body by way of reconstructing a Butlerian theory of sex/gender. The key to such a reconstruction will lie in insisting on two points simultaneously: 1) always stressed by Butler, sex is itself gendered and thus sex does not lie outside of gender norms, nor causally produce them, but is instead a product of those norms, and 2) not often emphasised or made clear by Butler, sex cannot be reduced to gender. The category of sex has a crucial role to play even within a radical theory of sex/gender that takes sex itself to be gendered. To gender sex is not to do away with sex. This point can be elaborated and explained within the frame of Butler’s project, even if she herself has not always been careful to stress it.

2009 - WPSA ANNUAL MEETING "Ideas, Interests and Institutions" Pages: 24 pages || Words: 7126 words || 
2. Pfeifle, Jason. "The Implications of Judith Butler's Account of Identification for the Practice of Multicultural Education" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the WPSA ANNUAL MEETING "Ideas, Interests and Institutions", Hyatt Regency Vancouver, BC Canada, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Mar 19, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-18 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: While many accounts of multicultural education rely upon claims about the character of identity, more often than not these accounts of identity remain underdeveloped. The purpose of this paper is to consider what implications a more substantive account of identification has for the practice of multicultural education. To do so, I bring the work of Judith Butler to bear on certain identity claims implied by Rob Reich’s conception of multicultural education.

2007 - American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Words: 203 words || 
3. Salazar, Theresa., Ockerman, Angela., Enz, Stephanie., Ramsey, Darin., Wichman, Ken., Hancock, Bruce. and Andritz, Mary. "Butler University’s Experience with Pharmacy Communication across the Curriculum" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Disney’s Yacht & Beach Club Resort, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, Jul 14, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-06-18 <>
Publication Type: School Poster
Abstract: In 2004, the Butler College of Pharmacy Curriculum Committee began curricular mapping. The faculty completed two survey instruments summarizing their courses and identifying which of the College’s Curricular Outcomes and specific content areas their courses addressed. During 2005, the Committee summarized the data and identified five curricular threads: (1) skills development for pharmacy operations, (2) communication skills, (3) quantitative and logical thinking, (4) application and uniformity of foundational principles, and (5) health and health systems management. During a 2006 retreat, faculty teams identified potential areas of collaboration and possible solutions to address gaps and redundancies related to each of the curricular threads.

The objective of this poster will be to present the mapping results related to one of these curricular threads: communication skills. Attention will be given to the following components: empathy, oral communication/counseling skills, interprofessional communication skills, and oral/written presentation and public communication skills. Over 25 student communication activities spanning the pre-professional and professional curricula have been identified. Specific examples emphasizing the collaborative and independent activities will be presented. These exercises reinforce student communication skills consistent with ACPE Standards 11, 12 and 13 and illustrate our College’s integrated cumulative approach to learning.

2011 - 96th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 19197 words || 
4. White, John. "Butler, the General with the White Face and Black Heart" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 96th Annual Convention, TBA, Richmond, VA, Oct 04, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-18 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: General Benjamin Butler was hated and criticized for becoming a fanatical supporter of Negro equality. At the beginning of the Civil War, General Butler was indifferent to the plight of Negroes. General Butlers initial views were common among Union officers, most felt that blacks would not fight for their own freedom. Perhaps, he was changed when he had to rule on a case of slave brutality in New Orleans. Butler met with free New Orleans black men to determine, if given the opportunity, “will they fight?” Butler mustered the first black regiment, the Louisiana Native Guard, into service in 1862. A year later the Louisiana Native Guard answered Butler’s question. “Yes, they will fight.”
Following the emancipation Proclamation, Butler met with President Lincoln to discuss African colonization of the Negroes. Butler replied that it would not work and he preferred John Browns plan of arming the Negroes. This meeting initiated the recruitment of black soldiers which resulted in 130,000 USCT’s in the field.
Following gallantry at Port Hudson, Milliken’s Bend, Fort Wagner and Petersburg, black troops were still not trusted by white troops. Lincoln was also not expected to win reelection in November 1864. Butler declined Lincoln’s invitation to be vice president and planned to win a major battle with black troops at Richmond. Black troops successively captured New Market Heights and destroyed Richmond’s outer defenses. Lincoln won reelection. Black troops were awarded 14 Congressional Medals of Honor which remains as Africa-Americas greatest military honor.

5. Clinton, David. "Law, Diplomacy, and Public Opinion: The Expanding Vision of Nicholas Murray Butler" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the BISA-ISA JOINT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE "DIVERSITY IN THE DISCIPLINE: TENSION OR OPPORTUNITY IN RESPONDING TO GLOBAL", Old Town district of Edinburgh, Edinburgh Scotland UK, Jun 20, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-06-18 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript

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