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2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 681 words || 
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1. Tillitt, Gretchen., Seguin, Eric. and Eng, Sothy. "Impact of the Information Technology Certificate Program on Students in rural Cambodia: an Evaluation supported by Caring for Cambodia NGO" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p716953_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Background: In 2010, Lehigh University began collaboration with the NGO Caring for Cambodia (CFC). Over the last three years, they have partnered to serve the community of Siem Reap, Cambodia through various educational programs. Working in partnership with current CFC staff and faculty, Lehigh students have been requested to examine program development, and to evaluate programs. The Information Technology (IT) Certificate program was introduced to the high schools with the intent of increasing the exposure and ability to use computer technology among the students in grades 7-12, where they learned IT in a daily one-hour course which is conducted for three months for each cohort of students enrolled. CFC taught the IT Certificate program in the 2013 school year, and is currently teaching another course this school year. The objective of this evaluation is to examine the impact of the IT Certificate program on the attitudes of the students regarding his or her beliefs in technology and the future of computers in their own lives; and whether career aspirations are heightened after he or she has experienced the course in IT.

Theoretical Perspective: This study is based on human capital theory, which explains that increased educational knowledge will improve a person’s economic development, increasing the overall earnings and thereby improving opportunities for the students, their families, and their communities. This exchange of knowledge information is a factor of globalization, and it allows students, as future employees, to develop skills beyond those of their agrarian societies; where formerly there were very few opportunities to work beyond the farming, fishing, small motor and bicycle repair, an increase in computer skills provides opportunities to work in an office in a clerical capacity, or to prepare them for entrance into a formal technology program after high school graduation, or to begin a college degree program.

Methods: The analytical research methods of this study will include both qualitative and quantitative methods. For quantitative based methods, questionnaires were given to three groups of students (those who completed the IT Certificate program, those who have just recently enrolled, and those who have never enrolled) to complete during their normal class time with an estimated sample size of 300 students. For the qualitative portion of the research, focus groups were conducted with the three groups of students for a total of 9 focus groups. Each focus group consisted of an average of 6 students, with total sample size of 51 students. Interview questions were focused on how they felt about the inclusion of technology in their course work and their lives, about their future aspirations regarding employment and technology, and the success of the IT Certificate program itself.

Expected Outcomes: It is expected that students who participated in the program will have a more positive attitude with an optimistic outlook regarding computer skills, better computer skills, and greater aspirations in computer related careers compared to those who did not participate or who are currently enrolled in the program. Further, relevant stakeholders such as parents, village chiefs, CFC staff, and the Cambodian Ministry of Education will express their favorable interest regarding the use of technology for the children in their schools as a means of bringing global interest to an economically challenged community.

Contributions to the Field of CIE: Using the Internet in education and the ability to take advantage of the abundance of tools available through IT has developed quite extensively since its inception. Educators were advised by UNESCO that the use of the Internet is demanding alternative pedagogic methods to the existing educational practices and traditional forms of learning. Furthermore, technology can influence education to promote an atmosphere of collaboration and participation supporting capacities, attitudes and personal aptitudes. The evaluation of the IT Certificate Course for CFC has the potential to identify aspects of the training program which are transferable, and may be used in continued CFC IT courses, as well as create a template for other technology-challenged communities to begin introducing education through technology, a step to knowledge transfer and opportunities for globalization and an improved economic outlook.

2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 608 words || 
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2. Pham, Minh., Phillips, Lauren Elizabeth., Jacobson, Lauren., Dougherty, Lori. and Eng, Sothy. "An Evaluation of Student Council Programs in Developing Cambodia’s Three Goodness among Students at Caring for Cambodia Schools" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p993334_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Introduction: Caring for Cambodia (CFC) is a non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Siem Reap, Cambodia focusing on maximizing educational quality, opportunities, and overall well-being for almost 6,500 children in ten schools. These schools, like all others in the nation, have Student Council Programs (SCP) whose mission is to encourage both the overall school development and students’ individual development towards becoming a good child, a good student, and a good friend.

Purpose of Evaluation: This evaluation investigates the efficiency, functionality, and success of SCP at nine CFC schools for the first time. This evaluation will provide comparative social science research for non-CFC Cambodian schools in their efforts to better their student council programs. Moreover, this evaluation provides information about SCP practices of the CFC schools for other education systems to learn.

Methods: This research combines both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative portion consists of focus groups and individual interviews, which include students and CFC staff. In total, there were 68 students (25 boys and 43 girls) participated in the focus group interviews (58 student council members and 10 non-members). Breaking down by grade levels, 41 students are in primary level, 13 junior high school level, and 14 senior high school level. Their ages range from 10-24 years old. Other participants include three teachers and three CFC staff who participated in the interviews. For quantitative portion, only students participated with a total of 253 students (33% non-members and 67% members). Their ages range from 7-21 years old (Mean=13.31), from Grades 4-12. Students were purposefully selected to ensure that students from all grade levels and from the eight sub-committees of the SCP were represented. Measures used in this study include students’ general demographic information, academic performance, college aspirations, and three goodness measures. The Three Goodness measures include “good child” with ten items (alpha=.92), “good friend” with six items (alpha=.84), and “good student” with eight items (alpha=.86). A combination of these three goodness measures together yields an alpha of .89. This data was then analyzed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Chi-Square in STATA.

Results: Members believe that the SCP gives them opportunities to develop leadership, enhance their confidence, and foster marketable skills. However, SCP members seem to be more focused on the services they can provide to the school, their classmates, and the community. Student council members generally have more characteristics for being a good child, good student, and good friend than non-members, but there was little statistical difference. However, there is statistical significance to support the relationship between SCP participation and its enhancement of good child qualities for students. There is a positive link between SCP participation and Three Goodness among female students. Members also show a more positive attitude towards gender equality in future career opportunities. Furthermore, SCP members have more aspiration to go to college than non-student council members.

Conclusions: The Student Council Program at CFC schools has proven to have positive impacts. Students are highly motivated to participate in SCP activities and the community-minded activities give them the opportunity to affect change. The program positively influences female students and student council members of both sexes display more equitable views on gender.

Implications for CIE: This research allows for comparative studies between Cambodian student councils and those of other countries for the first time in terms of goals, activities, and the perception of the role of student council in the community. Future research can investigate the differences of adaptation and implementation of policies used by the CFC Student Council Program in Cambodia and in different countries. Additionally, future research should analyze and discuss how a community’s economic status impacts how the SCP functions overall.

2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 234 words || 
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3. Sage, Caroline., Adler, Daniel. and Woolcock, Michael. "Interim Institutions and the Development Process: Law and the Creation of Spaces for Reform in Cambodia and Indonesia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 25, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p185590_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: While there is broad agreement among scholars and practitioners on the importance of “good governance”, “the rule of law” and “effective institutions” for ensuring positive development outcomes, we have a much poorer understanding of how such goals should be realized . Whether informed by modernization theory, Marxist perspectives or neoclassical assumptions, the prevailing imperatives guiding the work of development actors—from international agencies to national line ministries and local non-government organizations—tend to produce reforms that encourage (and in some cases actively require) rapid, linear, technically driven transitions to pre-determined end-state institutional forms deemed to be global “best practice.” Drawing on two very different cases from Indonesia and Cambodia, we outline an alternative, more process oriented approach that focuses on building “interim institutions”—that is, formal or informal institutions concived of in terms of their potential to engage with and incrementally transform the political economies within which they exist. Successful interim institutional appraoches, we suggest, are hybrid in their nature—based on local knowledge but promoting principles of rule based, transparent and accountabile decision making—and acknowlede that they are working towards an end-state which must emerge through a process of social contestation and is thus largely unknowable ex ante. From this perspective, good governance is a product of “equitable political struggles,” and a key goal of development assistance strategies should be to support the emergance of interim institutions which can both facilitate and be transformed by such struggles.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 46 pages || Words: 14547 words || 
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4. Alldén, Susanne. "Microfinancial entrepreneurship: A tool for peacebuilding and empowerment in Timor-Leste and Cambodia?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p253035_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Economic despair is one main source of violent conflict and threats to economic security are both of macroeconomic and microeconomic concern. Getting access to economic resources helps strengthening social relations and can facilitate reconciliation and the establishment of relations of trust and peace. This paper addresses the development of the microfinance sectors in post-conflict Timor-Leste and Cambodia and looks specifically at women as economic actors and how they are involved in various microfinance activities. The aim of the paper is to look closer at how microfinance can be used as a peacebuilding and development tool, and address its stated effects on women’s empowerment and emancipation. By describing the microfinance climate in Cambodia from the early 1990s and in Timor-Leste from 1999, what strengths and weaknesses can be identified in the development of microfinance in these two post-conflict societies? To what extent has this development acknowledged women as economic actors and beneficiaries? The paper ends with some reflections on the future of microfinance in Cambodia and Timor-Leste, emphasizing the importance of not over-stating the effects of microfinance on poverty alleviation or gender equality at large.

2009 - 53rd Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 200 words || 
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5. Tanabe, Yoko. "Indigenous minorities and national language policy in Cambodia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Francis Marion Hotel, Charleston, South Carolina, Mar 22, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p302352_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Overall goal of the study is to examine a paradigm shift of the recent language policy for indigenous minorities in Cambodia, specifically focusing on the impact of pilot projects done by UNESCO, UNICEF and other NGOs. As UNESCO defines Mother-Tongue based Multilingual Education (MT-based MLE) as “schooling beginning with the L1 for reading, writing and learning, while teaching the L2”, a considerable number of studies on MT-based MLE have consistently shown evidence that the longer children are educated in their mother tongue, the better they acquire the second language. However, it is certain that only a few governments in South East Asia yet demonstrate a firm commitment to implement MLE for their linguistic minority groups, although it have gained gradual understanding of educational administrators as a “best practice”. Taking several pilot projects operated in Ratanakiri province and Mondulkiri province, Cambodia as case studies, this study answers to the following questions: why is multilingual education still not widely accepted or implemented by several governments in South East Asia? What might be the constraints? Who are the actors involved in this process? By comparing “world view” of different stakeholers through qualitative research, the study clarifies the peril and promise of multilingual education.

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