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2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 90 words || 
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1. Ellis, Tom. "What Do We Do When They All Have Cameras? Action Research on Blanket Issue of Police Body Worn Video Cameras" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 18, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1031090_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There has been much emphasis on using random Controlled Trials to evaluate whether police Body Worn Video Cameras ‘work’ but less thought has gone into generating hypotheses about how and why the cameras might work. This presentation outlines how we have applied a utilization focused evaluation approach in collaboration with Hampshire Police, UK. It identifies the types of front line incidents where cameras can be expected to have an effect and how proactive use of cameras enhances their impact, both on the front line and on post-incident criminal justice processes.

2016 - American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting Words: 198 words || 
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2. Todd, Hilary. and Murphy, Joshua. "Lights, Camera, Inaction: Body-Worn Camera Research in Canada" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, Nov 16, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1149935_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The implementation of body-worn cameras (BWCs) is an emerging trend in operational policing. While studies have examined their impact on issues including the use of force, and citizen complaints in the United States, their utility remains under-researched in Canada. In 2014, a Canadian multi-site study of the impact of BWCs was proposed. The study hoped to offer a comprehensive evaluation of all facets of the uses and impacts of BWCs, including the impact this technology has on police, police decision-making, the criminal justice system, and other dimensions, as well as the public’s view of BWCs. Despite varying levels of agency ‘buy-in’, police union support, and the collaboration of leading Canadian police researchers, the study was terminated in 2016.
The present paper details the barriers faced by researchers with respects to the implementation of BWCs for the purpose of the proposed study. Among these are issues associated with privacy and disclosure, agency involvement, Crown and the perceived burden the technology might place on the judiciary, and the lack of communication between stakeholders. The lessons learned from the termination of this study emphasize the challenges associated with the introduction of BWCs, and serve as a tool to inform future research.

2016 - American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Sandhu, Ajay. "Camera-friendly Policing: How the Police Respond to Cameras and Photographers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, Nov 16, 2016 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1147813_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: How do police respond to the presence of cameras and photographers? Many speculative theories have been proposed offering mixed and sometimes contradictory answers to this question. Some theories propose that cameras will deter abuses of power, others suggest that cameras might improve police accountability, others suggest that police might respond to cameras by engaging in a risk-averse style of policing. Unfortunately, little empirical data is available to assess these theories. Drawing on data from a participant-observation research study conducted in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, this paper helps fill this gap in research and argues that police might be learning to adapt to cameras by engage in what I call camera-friendly policing. This style of policing involves efforts to control how the police are perceived by photographers, and how they will be perceived by viewers of any recorded footage. In this paper, I outline the basic elements of the police’s camera-friendly tactics, and discuss the implications of these tactics for contemporary understandings of police visibility.

2015 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 468 words || 
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4. Reynolds, Caitlin. "Visibility is a Trap: Camera Phones, Body Cameras, and the Visual Regime of Surveillance" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Centre and Towers, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1016287_index.html>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: Former police officer Eugene O’Donnell has some advice to young cops: Don’t take a job in any department that requires you to wear a camera. For O’Donnell, the very act of requiring a police officer to film their actions while on duty displays a dangerous mistrust in the decisions of officers. O’Donnell is certainly correct that officers are facing record levels of mistrust and public disapproval. Since the off-camera shooting of Michael Brown in August 2014, the debate over whether or not law enforcement officers should be required to wear body cameras has accelerated at a viral rate, with Google searches for “body cameras” and “police cameras” increasing more than ten-fold by the end of 2014. With the increase of affordable, portable, and high quality cameras in phones and other devices, filming the police has gained popularity as a strategy among police accountability activists. Groups such as Cop Watch and Cop Block, among many others, have employed tactics of filming police encounters, filing open records requests on camera, and posting particularly shocking videos to YouTube and other public video sites. The logic of filming police encounters relies on the reliability of video as an impartial, objective observer, the perfect eyewitness that tells the truth, and nothing but the truth. This logic, which André Bazin argues has been present since the advent of photography, obscures both the technological biases built into different types of cameras as well as their strategic deployment. The debate over body cameras has coopted the activist rhetoric of truth and accountability by offering body cameras as a valid substitute for, and perhaps even replacement of, acts of citizen filming. However, numerous concerns are arising at both the state and public levels regarding the limited perspective of body cameras, inability of the public to easily access filmed material, and the use of body cameras as an extension of the state surveillance apparatus.
The movement between technological devices used to film police activity, from the video camera, to the mobile phone, to the dashboard camera and the body camera carries both new technological possibilities and new social probabilities. Through an extensive reading of publicly-posted police encounter videos, filmed both with cell phones and police cameras, paired with historical analysis of the technological and social affordances of various recording devices, this paper argues that the adoption of body cameras as official police equipment is a move towards extending the surveillance society. I argue that the mass adoption of body cameras threatens undermine the momentum gained by activists who are attempting to decriminalize acts of civilian filming by offering a false replacement. In doing so, body cameras represent the victory of a new epistemic regime of visuality that turns away from filming the police as an act of resistant power and instead embraces video footage as a disciplinary tool.

2010 - American Psychology - Law Society Words: 104 words || 
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5. Paiva, Melissa., Weipert, Ryan., Gamache, Kyle., Berman, Garrett. and Cutler, Brian. "Lights, Camera, Action! Effects of Camera Perspective on Perceptions of Eyewitness Procedures" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology - Law Society, Westin Bayshore Hotel, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Mar 18, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p399063_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The present study examined the effects of differential camera angles on perceptions of an eyewitness, the investigator and the subsequent identification. Participants (N= 95) read a case summary about a robbery, and then viewed one of four videos depicting an eyewitness identification. During the interview, participants viewed one of four camera perspectives (1) eyewitness focus, (2) investigator focus, (3) split screen focus or (4) audio only. Participants exposed to the audio only condition perceived the eyewitness and the investigator less favorably. Results indicate that merely viewing the identification increases favorable perceptions of the eyewitness and the investigator, implications are discussed.

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