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2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 19 pages || Words: 5038 words || 
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1. Park, Hyung. "Sharing the Campaign Roles: Comparison Official E-mail Campaign and On-Line Activists’ E-mail campaign (Case study of 2004 Presidential Election)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p41707_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: E-mail emerged not only as a major communication device but also as a new campaign tool in recent years. Due to its easy and low operating cost, major parties and candidates do not monopolize e-mail campaign. On-line activist groups take an advantage of e-mail campaign for their election goals. John Kerry’s official e-mail campaign targeted not only democrats but also moderates and independents. Thus they have some restrictions in selecting words and attacking opponent. On-line activist, on the other hand, have much more specific targeted (more liberals in moveon.org’s case). Thus On-line activists have less restriction to attack their opponents. John Kerry was able to send less negative message due to his attack dog: moveon.org.

2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Song, Hyunjin., Nyhuis, Dominic. and Boomgaarden, Hajo G.. "A Network Model of Negative Campaigning: Structures and Determinants of Negative Campaigning in Multiparty Systems" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, Jun 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1103286_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Recently, there has been a growing scholarly attention to the nature and extent of negative campaigning in non-majoritarian multi-party systems. While these studies have made commendable progress in outlining the conditions and consequences of negative campaigning, they have typically disregarded the complex interdependencies of multi-actor communication environments. To rectify this shortcoming, the present paper focuses on network-structural determinants of the negative campaigning behaviors. We examine patterns of candidate communication during the 2013 Austrian federal election, relying on an extensive manual coding of the mediated campaign communication. Employing Exponential Random Graph Models to investigate the targets of negative campaigning and the individual incentives to partake in such communication behavior, we find that – above and beyond common determinants of negative campaigning outlined in previous literature – indicators of network structure are important predictors of campaign communication. This suggests that network models are crucial for accurately representing patterns of communication in multi-party systems.

2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Jeong, Daeun. and Chung, Sungeun. "Biases in Perceived Effect of Persuasive Campaigns: Differences Between Actual and Perceived Effects of Campaign Messages" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, Jun 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1106785_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examined errors in recall of pre-message attitude after processing persuasive messages in order to test the difference between actual and perceived effect of persuasive campaigns. It also tested whether the amount of the bias in recall of pre-message attitude moderates the relationship between actual attitude change and perceived message effect. An online-experiment was conducted with a pretest-posttest control group design (N = 196). Results showed that when attitudes changed in favor of message arguments, participants biasedly estimated their pre-message attitudes toward the direction of post-message attitudes. Second, the amount of bias in recall of pre-message attitude weakened the relationship between the actual attitude change and perceived message effect. Theoretical and practical implications of findings were discussed.

2014 - International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 9797 words || 
Info
4. Ernst, Nicole., Wirth, Werner. and Kuehne, Rinaldo. "Effects of Repeatedly Presented Attacking Campaign Posters: The Influence of Negative Campaigning and the Truth Effect on Political Issue Evaluation, the Trustworthiness of Statements and the Feeling of Reactance" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference, Seattle Sheraton Hotel, Seattle, Washington, May 21, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p713752_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Political campaigns around the globe tend to become more negative by directly attacking the opponent. Although the effect of negative campaigning has been thoroughly investigated in the US, only a few studies exist in European political communications research. One new area of research is the potential influence of the truth effect on the success of a negative strategy. If a repeated statement is always more credible, politicians should be able to use this effect to their benefit. Using an online experiment to depict attacking or neutral campaign posters in three different frequencies, this study examined whether repeatedly shown negative posters influence the evaluation of a political issue, the trustworthiness of a statement or the feeling of reactance. The study found that frequently presented attacking campaign posters resulted in a more negative opinion of a political issue. In addition, after being presented with attacking posters, participants rated the poster’s statement as less credible and displayed higher feelings of reactance.

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