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2017 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Lachapelle, Francois. and Burnett, Patrick. "The Rise and Stall of the Canadianization Movement: Inequalities among Canadian Professoriate, Evidences from 1977-2017" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Palais des Congrès de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, Aug 12, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1255603_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The Canadianization Movement is one of the constitute moments in the relatively recent history of Canadian social sciences that emerged in the late 1960s under the leadership of two Carleton University English professors, James Steele and Robin Matthews. This social movement later gained momentum in the mid-1970s when the young Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association adopted an aggressive Canadianizing policy that culminated in 1982 when the federal government adopted the Canadian First Policy. Afterwards, as the domestic narrative goes, the Canadianization Movement, which proposed to limit the access of non-Canadians to academic jobs, may possibly have overturned the post-war Americanization of Canada’s social scientific field. Using the largest database on Canadian professoriates to date (5,000 cases), we are undertaking a series of longitudinal studies of U15’s social sciences professors’ educational trajectory between 1977 and 2017 to document ‘the rise and stall’ of the Canadianization Movement at the institutional level.

2014 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 235 words || 
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2. Galatas, Steven. "Duverger’s Law and the Canadian Exception: Evidence from the Canadian Provinces" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, The Hyatt Regency New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 09, 2014 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p705480_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Are Canadian provincial elections characterized by multi-party competition? Among the best known “laws” in political science, Duverger’s Law, posits that the single member district – plurality election system tends to produce two parties at the district level. Although Canada employs this election system at the federal and provincial level, Duverger himself noted a Canadian exception to the “law.” This exception was associated in part with the regionalization of politics in Canada both at the federal and provincial level. This paper offers a test of the potential for a Canadian exception to Duverger’s Law at the level of elections to the provincial legislatures in Canada. While data comes primarily from elections to provincial legislative assemblies in all the four Atlantic provinces (New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island), additional data from recently elections throughout Canada are used. Data is measured at the level of the electoral district and includes multiple elections in each province since the 1970s. Multiple measures of party competition, including the effective number of parties and the Competiveness Index (Endersby et al. 2002) are used. Findings suggest much of Canada continues to adhere to Duverger’s Law, with selected provinces like Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia offering evidence for the “Canadian Exception.”

2013 - The Law and Society Association Words: 524 words || 
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3. Bhuyan, Rupaleem., Sakamoto, Izumi., Ku, Jane., Jeyapal, Daphne. and Fang, Lin. "“Modernizing” Nation-Building in a Neoliberal Era: A Discourse Analysis of “Canadian Experience” in Canadian Policy and Media Rhetoric" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Boston, MA, May 30, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p642716_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In August 2012, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) quietly unveiled a major overhaul of the Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP), the main economic immigration class in Canada for the past decade, commonly known as the “points system”. This announcement solidifies changes within Canada’s immigration system that CIC introduced over the past few years, with increased emphasis on a younger and more ‘flexible’ immigrant workforce. The re-envisioned FSWP also further institutionalizes “Canadian Experience” as a criterion for awarding permanent residency to immigrant applicants from abroad, and temporary residents who are studying or working in Canada on temporary visas. The institutionalization of Canadian Experience in immigrant selection is part of a larger trend in Canada to introduce new ways of scrutinizing who is worthy of permanent residence, while simultaneously admitting more temporary foreign workers.

This paper examines public policy and media rhetoric surrounding the introduction of the “Canadian Experience” in Canadian immigration policy, with attention to the Canadian Experience Class—first introduced in 2010—and the re-envisioned Federal Skilled Workers Program in 2012. We employ interpretive and critical discourse analysis to examine the federal government’s ideological control of the discourse of “Canadian Experience”, through analyzing press releases from CIC, CIC’s Minister Kenney’s published speeches, and related media coverage in major Canadian English-language newspapers.

We begin with an historical analysis of the discourse of “Canadian Experience” which is a contested discourse in Canadian employment practices. “Canadian Experience” is a common job requirement that highly skilled immigrants are asked to demonstrate before obtaining meaningful employment. Immigrant service providers and community activists have identified “Canadian Experience” as a discriminatory practice which marks the tacit knowledge or soft skills that are expected as essential for success in the Canadian workplace. While settlement service organizations offer professional development to internationally trained immigrants so they can better demonstrate the requisite “Canadian Experience” on their resumes and in job interviews, there is growing critique against the highly subjective, contradictory and shifting parameters of “Canadian Experience”. Resistance to this discourse argues that Canadian Experience disguises racist discrimination against internationally trained immigrants, many of whom are racialized in Canada. Through this paper, we illustrate how the federal government has redefined “Canadian Experience” through immigration policy as a criterion for selecting permanent residents, while erasing decades of critique around the necessity or function of “Canadian Experience” within the labour market.

In a globalized world where experience gained abroad is usually a highly sought after skill, we argue that the Canadian government’s institutionalizing “Canadian Experience” mobilizes nationalist discourses to gain public support for their overhaul of Canadian immigration and citizenship. By tapping into xenophobic impulses to preserve what is “good for Canada”, the federal government has asserted ideological control over the discourse of “Canadian Experience”, effectively depoliticizing “Canadian Experience” while simultaneously promoting social and economic exclusion of the im/migrant Other in highly coded ways. The federal government cooptation of “Canadian Experience” authorizes this discourse as necessary for “modernizing” Canada, while diverting our attention away from a revisionist agenda for Canadian immigration; one that will produce a temporary and deportable labour force with a strong message that only a select few can become full members of Canadian society.

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