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2010 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 8679 words || 
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1. Chung, Sungeun. and Waheed, Moniza. "Processing Political Messages From Favored Candidates: The Effect of Candidate Favorability on Attitudes Toward Issues" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore, Jun 22, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p404621_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to test the effect of candidate favorability on message processing and attitudes toward issue. Participants (N = 182) received messages about unfamiliar political issues from either favored or less favored candidates in 2008 U.S. Presidential election. Messages advocated either a typical Democratic position or a typical Republican position. A positive effect of candidate favorability on attitudes toward issues was found in both high and low levels of political interest. For high political interest, candidate favorability had a positive effect on both issue-relevant thoughts and source-relevant thoughts. Issue-relevant thoughts had a positive effect on attitudes for high political interest in one issue. Implications of findings on heuristics and systematic processing were discussed.

2018 - MPSA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Tepe, Markus. and Jankowski, Michael. "Candidates Conceptualizations of Ideology Analyzing Left-Right Definitions of Parliamentary Candidates using Structural Topic Models" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual Conference, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 05, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1349025_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Structural Topic Models (STM) are used to extract political concepts from open-response questions about the meaning of “left” and “right”.

2008 - MPSA Annual National Conference Pages: 44 pages || Words: 10642 words || 
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3. Fleming, David. "Candidates and Context: A Multilevel Analysis of Candidate Advertising" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Palmer House Hotel, Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 03, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p266407_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Using hierarchical linear modeling, I analyze candidate advertising in 2004 House campaigns. Candidate attributes and characteristics of congressional districts influence the issues candidates use in their television advertisements.

2008 - APSA 2008 Annual Meeting Pages: 26 pages || Words: 6440 words || 
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4. Johansen, Morgen. "Priming Social Identity with Campaign Advertising: The Cues Candidates Use and their Effect on Voters' Candidate Evaluations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA 2008 Annual Meeting, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p280096_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Although there is much work on social identity theory, there is relatively little research that explores the connection between social identity and campaigns. This paper proposes that candidates use campaign advertising to trigger voters’ feelings of social identity. Specifically, this paper examines the cues candidates provide in their ads to trigger social identity and how well those signals influence candidate evaluations. This paper focuses on two social identities candidates may emphasize in their ads to influence how voters perceive them: race and gender. The relationship between social identity cues and candidate evaluations is explored with multilevel models that allow for an individual level focus. Results are discussed within the social identity literature and more broadly within the literature on how campaigns, and campaign advertising, affect voters and their evaluations of candidates.

2012 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 7071 words || 
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5. Danley-Scott, Jennifer., Greene, Ravelle. and Tompsett-Makin, Deborah. "Reporting on a Candidate’s Bag or Baggage: Has Media Coverage of Female Candidates Matured Beyond Stereotypes?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel InterContinental, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 12, 2012 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p544204_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the last 30 years, the United States has seen a growth in the number of women candidates for high national office (CITE). Given this new norm, one would expect the media to be accustomed to covering candidates without gender bias or stereotypes.

But is this the case? Assuming that the media provides citizens with information for prospective voting (Downs 1957) and that the media acts as a heuristic for low-information voters (Popkin 1994; Lupia and McCubbins 1998), bias based on gender should be alarming. We know that the media can indeed affect voters’ decisions, whether due to their presentation of material (Iyengar and Kinder 1987), their reinforcing of beliefs (Berelson, Lazarsfeld, and McPhee 1954; Zaller 1991), or because of their unequal treatment of the candidates (Kahn and Goldberg 1991).

Seminal works on gender variance in press coverage, like Kahn (1994), focused largely on the amount, type, and negativity of coverage given to candidates in the 1980s. But studies attempting to measure the media’s coverage of personal topics, or its inclusion of gender bias, lead to a mixed bag of conclusions. Our study uses the recent election to determine whether differences still exist in the amounts, issues, favorability and possible bias in coverage. The paper looks at the media treatment of two prominent 2010 Senate races in California and Wisconsin, comparing the content of the coverage given to female candidates versus male candidates.

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