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2009 - 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions Words: 489 words || 
1. Laudel, Grit. "Shaping Research Content through Careers: Institutionalised Career Patterns and Problem Choices of Early Career Researchers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Crystal City, VA, Oct 28, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-05-23 <>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The aim of my paper is to demonstrate how national institutions by shaping researchers’ careers also affect the content of their research. The relationship between academic careers and the knowledge produced has been neglected by career studies. It surfaces in some quantitative studies but knowledge production is usually reduced to performance, which in turn is measured by simple indicators such as scientific output (publications) or citations (e.g. Cole and Zuckerman 1984; Xie and Shauman 1998; Dietz and Bozeman 2005). The content of research and the ways in which it might be shaped by specific institutionalised career patterns are neglected by these studies.
My empirical focus will be the early career phase and the transition from supervised to independent research that occurs in that phase (Laudel and Gläser 2008). The research in the early career has been shown to be particularly vulnerable. Research biographies are often interrupted or at least ‘thinned’ in that phase because of competitive disadvantages in the ‘grant game’ and due to the sudden emergence of competing none-research tasks (teaching, administration) that are conducted by early career researchers for the first time. The transition from supervised to independent research, i.e. the choice of research problems and approaches that are considered relevant and appropriate by the scientific community, is located in that phase. The resulting problems have been recognized by science policy in many countries, and a variety of solutions are experimented with.
The paper is based on empirical case studies of early career researchers in selected fields working at German, Australian and Dutch universities. I will identify conditions of research that are shaped by national career systems and are crucial for the problem choice of early career researchers, ncluding:
1. Autonomy, i.e. the opportunity to independently select research topics and methods.
2. Discretion over resources, i.e. the amount of resources that can be obtained and constraints on their use.
3. Mobility, i.e. the voluntary and enforced moves between organisations (including moves to and from other countries).
4. Time horizons for the planning of significant results, i.e. the time spans after which results must be provided in order to enable the continuation of the research.
These conditions influence the extent to which new lines of research can be started and existing ones can be or must be abandoned. The impact of the conditions on the emerging research programmes of early career researchers are highly field-specific; the variations between fields will be discussed.

Cole, Jonathan, and Harriet Zuckerman, 1984. The Productivity Puzzle: Persistence and Change in Patterns of Publication of Men and Women Scientists. Advances in Motivation and Achievement 2: 217-258.
Dietz, James S., and Barry Bozeman, 2005. Academic careers, patents, and productivity: industry experience as scientific and technical human capital Research Policy 34: 349-367.
Laudel, Grit, and Jochen Gläser, 2008. From apprentice to colleague: the metamorphosis of Early Career Researchers. Higher Education 55: 387-406.
Xie, Yu, and Kimberlee A. Shauman, 1998. Sex differences in research productivity: New evidence about an old puzzle. American Sociological Review 63: 847-870.

2009 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 34 pages || Words: 11437 words || 
2. Pixley, Joy. "Career Prioritizing in Dual-Earner Couples and Spouses’ Relative Career Gains to Major Decisions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 08, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Prioritizing husbands' careers over wives' careers should theoretically constrain wives' career advancement and contribute to the gender wage gap. However, past research has not systematically tested how career priority in decision-making affects decision outcomes. This paper is the first to offer a behavioral operationalization of career prioritizing in family migration decisions and test whether the prioritized spouse indeed experiences better relative outcomes. I analyze dual-earner couples' reports on 73 decisions about whether and where to move. As predicted, husbands' careers fare better than their wives' careers when he has a job lined up before the decision made, when he finds a job before she does, when only the wife makes a job change, and when his career is given as the main reason for choosing that option. Decisions resulting in moves are relatively better for husbands than for wives, compared to decisions not to move. Surprisingly, spouses' relative career gains are not significantly related to whose career initiated the situation, or whether the wife had a job lined up.

2014 - ISTR 11th Annual Conference Words: 677 words || 
3. Nemenoff, Erin. "Unpacking nonprofit career awareness: Volunteering as a gateway to nonprofit careers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISTR 11th Annual Conference, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany, Jul 22, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-05-23 <>
Publication Type: Full Research Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Abstract
This research addresses the particular experiences nonprofit employees had prior to their entry into the sector that may have influenced their career decision. What are the impacts of volunteering on nonprofit career awareness, and what are the implications for executive directors and volunteer managers in today's nonprofit organization?

Problem to be addressed
In 2010, nearly 13.7 million people were employed in the U.S. nonprofit workforce, with a 17 percent increase in employment between 2000 and 2010, and paid wages of $587.7 billion (Blackwood, Roeger & Pettijohn, 2012). These numbers show that the nonprofit sector is the nation’s third-largest paid employer (Salamon, Sokolowski & Geller, 2012). However, with our workforce comprising such a large segment of America’s employed population, many individuals note that they were not aware of careers in the nonprofit sector until unintentionally exposed to them (Nemenoff, 2013). We have yet to examine the contributing factors to nonprofit career awareness. This research examines whether volunteering leads to careers in the nonprofit sector. Specifically, what are the impacts of early-life volunteering on nonprofit career awareness?

Relation to knowledge in the field
Today’s young adult has had a very different experience with engagement than their more “seasoned” peers. The push for increased engagement began in earnest in the 1980s, with the introduction of programs and offices like Campus Outreach Opportunity League, Campus Compact, the Office of National Service, and The Corporation for National and Community Service (Titlebaum, et al., 2004). Universities were encouraged to provide experiences to their students that increased participation in community service, service-learning and general civic engagement (Astin, Keup, & Lindholm, 2002). What has been the impact on the nonprofit workforce?

The importance of volunteering extends beyond giving and continued engagement as individuals age; these experiences provide people with insight into the working world of nonprofit organizations, and give them valuable hands-on experience. Edwards, Mooney & Heald (2001) suggest that volunteers can be an outlet to train or evaluate future staff, without the resource commitment needed to hire someone who may not be an appropriate organizational fit. Similarly, volunteers are able to see how their skill sets and knowledge can contribute to a nonprofit’s service delivery. Research has confirmed that some volunteers do seek employment in the nonprofit sector after meaningful and successful volunteer experiences (Houston, 2006; Lee, 2009). However, if students and young adults are to see their experience as an introduction to employment opportunities in the nonprofit sector, those experiences must be relevant and meaningful, and allow them to contribute to the overall organizational mission in some capacity.

This project is the second piece of a larger project utilizing an explanatory mixed-methods design. Initial quantitative research found volunteering to be a significant, yet slightly weak, predictor of nonprofit career awareness at a young age. However, respondents indicated the importance of volunteering in learning about careers in the nonprofit sector when answering several open-ended items within the survey.

The researcher will conduct semi-structured interviews with a sample of the survey respondents to determine how volunteering helped them understand the concept of “nonprofit careers”. Common themes will be identified and extrapolated, which will build our understanding of the relationship between volunteering and nonprofit career awareness.

Contribution to the field
The implications of this research will be to fill a significant gap in the nonprofit management literature. Although some scholarly work has been conducted to articulate nonprofit and public service motivation, none have outlined the points at which individuals learn about the nonprofit sector as a place of employment, and the process of their career decision-making. This research is appropriate for an international audience, in that understanding career paths in the nonprofit or NGO workforce is a universal need.

This research will further define outcomes of volunteering, and will also provide nonprofit organizations, career counselors, and others with information to help better target recruiting efforts into the nonprofit workforce. These results show that volunteers are a natural recruitment pool for the next generation of the nonprofit workforce, and imply that both quality volunteer management and quality volunteer experiences are crucial in serving as an introduction to the professional work of the nonprofit sector.

2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 591 words || 
4. Hu, Jiayi. "Setting foot in the teaching career: the approaches to ease the transition of new teachers to their teaching career" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-05-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Study Objectives or Purposes
The purpose of this study is to identify the needs of new teachers in their initial adaptation and transition to the teaching career, and then to identify the approaches to ease this transition process. Since new teachers who have just graduated from universities usually face difficulties in transiting to their new role as a teacher. It is crucial to identify effective approaches and thereby help them better cope with this process.
The research question is:
What are the needs of new teachers in their initial adaptation and transition to the teaching career? Accordingly, what are the approaches to ease this process?
Conceptual Framework
The major conceptual framework in this study is to identify effective approaches to help new teachers to better cope with transition process to their new role as a teacher at the beginning of the teaching career. The first stage is to identify the components of their needs to grow into a qualified teacher, while the second stage is to identify coping strategies accordingly.
Study Methods or Modes of Inquiry
As qualitative study aims at understanding and explaining human experience and social reality (Crotty, 1998; Cresswell, 2008), in this study, I adopt qualitative methods to identity the transition experience of young teachers in their teaching career.
Purposeful sampling is perhaps the most common sampling method used in qualitative studies (Hardon, Hodgkin, & Fresle, 2004). In this study, I will purposefully select 12 teachers of 6 subjects: Chinese, Math, English, Geography, History and Physics, two for each subject. After selecting the participants, I will conduct one-on-one in-depth interview with open-ended questions.
Data Collection
Since my intention is to elicit views and opinions from the participants, interviews, adopted in my study, involve open-ended questions guided by interview protocol and informed by the research questions and theoretical frameworks (Blee & Taylor, 2002; Creswell, 2009).
Data Analysis
By using open coding, a set of “emergent codes”, ideas, concepts, meanings, will emerge from analyzing the data. In this study, I code the data by open coding. Codes will collapse into themes when organized in coherent categories that summarize the data.
Data Sources or Evidence
All the data will be collected at a K-12 school in Fengtai District, Beijing. The research site is an appropriate location to facilitate this study for a number of reasons. First of all, the institution is typical for it is recruiting an increasing number of new teachers. 37% of the teachers at this school have just graduated from universities and started the teaching career. 45% of the teachers have worked in this school for no more than one academic year. A total of 82% of the teachers hold the teaching position for less than two years. Second, I am working as an administrator in this school and it is convenient for me to collect data.
Preliminary Results or Conclusions
During pilot interviews, several new teachers noted that they need to learn the pedagogy in class. They also pointed out that they need professional training of effective teaching in class.
Accordingly, the necessary and effective approaches to ease new teachers’ transition to the teaching career identified in this study will include extensive reading of classic educational works, attending the lectures given by experienced teachers, and sitting in other teachers’ class.
Study Significance
This study is of great significance in practice, for it will identify the necessary strategies that may help new teachers ease and facilitate the transition to the teaching career.

2016 - ARNOVA's 45th Annual Conference Words: 91 words || 
5. Powell, Emma. and Bartlett, Geoffrey. "Philanthropy-Specific Career Education: How Millennial’s Post-Secondary Philanthropic Learning Impacts the Success on their Philanthropic Career" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ARNOVA's 45th Annual Conference, Hyatt Regency Washington, Washington, DC, Nov 17, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-05-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The proposed research is exploratory, designed to begin a dialogue centered around millennial’s post-secondary education in the field of philanthropy. Specifically, we seek to better understand the relationship between philanthropy-specific curriculum and the rate of success/burnout in the millennial generation in a philanthropy-focused job. Within this study we ask: to what extent are millennials prepared through a philanthropy-specific education to be successful in a philanthropic career? We seek to understand the level of preparedness curricula support and how that impacts the job satisfaction post-graduation in a philanthropy-specific career.

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