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2009 - 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions Words: 489 words || 
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1. Laudel, Grit. "Shaping Research Content through Careers: Institutionalised Career Patterns and Problem Choices of Early Career Researchers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Crystal City, VA, Oct 28, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p372165_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The aim of my paper is to demonstrate how national institutions by shaping researchers’ careers also affect the content of their research. The relationship between academic careers and the knowledge produced has been neglected by career studies. It surfaces in some quantitative studies but knowledge production is usually reduced to performance, which in turn is measured by simple indicators such as scientific output (publications) or citations (e.g. Cole and Zuckerman 1984; Xie and Shauman 1998; Dietz and Bozeman 2005). The content of research and the ways in which it might be shaped by specific institutionalised career patterns are neglected by these studies.
My empirical focus will be the early career phase and the transition from supervised to independent research that occurs in that phase (Laudel and Gläser 2008). The research in the early career has been shown to be particularly vulnerable. Research biographies are often interrupted or at least ‘thinned’ in that phase because of competitive disadvantages in the ‘grant game’ and due to the sudden emergence of competing none-research tasks (teaching, administration) that are conducted by early career researchers for the first time. The transition from supervised to independent research, i.e. the choice of research problems and approaches that are considered relevant and appropriate by the scientific community, is located in that phase. The resulting problems have been recognized by science policy in many countries, and a variety of solutions are experimented with.
The paper is based on empirical case studies of early career researchers in selected fields working at German, Australian and Dutch universities. I will identify conditions of research that are shaped by national career systems and are crucial for the problem choice of early career researchers, ncluding:
1. Autonomy, i.e. the opportunity to independently select research topics and methods.
2. Discretion over resources, i.e. the amount of resources that can be obtained and constraints on their use.
3. Mobility, i.e. the voluntary and enforced moves between organisations (including moves to and from other countries).
4. Time horizons for the planning of significant results, i.e. the time spans after which results must be provided in order to enable the continuation of the research.
These conditions influence the extent to which new lines of research can be started and existing ones can be or must be abandoned. The impact of the conditions on the emerging research programmes of early career researchers are highly field-specific; the variations between fields will be discussed.

References
Cole, Jonathan, and Harriet Zuckerman, 1984. The Productivity Puzzle: Persistence and Change in Patterns of Publication of Men and Women Scientists. Advances in Motivation and Achievement 2: 217-258.
Dietz, James S., and Barry Bozeman, 2005. Academic careers, patents, and productivity: industry experience as scientific and technical human capital Research Policy 34: 349-367.
Laudel, Grit, and Jochen Gläser, 2008. From apprentice to colleague: the metamorphosis of Early Career Researchers. Higher Education 55: 387-406.
Xie, Yu, and Kimberlee A. Shauman, 1998. Sex differences in research productivity: New evidence about an old puzzle. American Sociological Review 63: 847-870.

2016 - ARNOVA's 45th Annual Conference Words: 91 words || 
Info
2. Powell, Emma. and Bartlett, Geoffrey. "Philanthropy-Specific Career Education: How Millennial’s Post-Secondary Philanthropic Learning Impacts the Success on their Philanthropic Career" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ARNOVA's 45th Annual Conference, Hyatt Regency Washington, Washington, DC, Nov 17, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1155191_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The proposed research is exploratory, designed to begin a dialogue centered around millennial’s post-secondary education in the field of philanthropy. Specifically, we seek to better understand the relationship between philanthropy-specific curriculum and the rate of success/burnout in the millennial generation in a philanthropy-focused job. Within this study we ask: to what extent are millennials prepared through a philanthropy-specific education to be successful in a philanthropic career? We seek to understand the level of preparedness curricula support and how that impacts the job satisfaction post-graduation in a philanthropy-specific career.

2015 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 6536 words || 
Info
3. Cheung, Nicole Wai Ting. "Career Orientation in Chinese Adolescents: The Roles of Career-related versus Generic Parent Support and Social Strain" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Chicago and Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Aug 20, 2015 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1008088_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Career orientation of adolescents during the high school years is increasingly recognized in sociology because of its consequences for school-to-work transition. This study investigated the relationships between career-related parent support, generic parent support, social strain, and career orientation (in terms of vocational exploration and commitment and career decision self-efficacy) among Chinese adolescents. Participants were 1,841 Chinese students in the eleventh grade in Hong Kong who completed a school-based survey in spring 2013. Career-related parent support directly enhanced vocational exploration and commitment and career decision self-efficacy in adolescents. However, generic parent support attenuated adolescent career orientation, suggesting the possible specificity of Chinese culture in generic parental influence. Social strain was more strongly related to poor vocational exploration and commitment than to weak career decision self-efficacy. Adolescents who encountered such forms of social strain as academic strain, career strain, and generic strain tended to have suboptimal vocational exploration and commitment. Career-related parent support was more useful in buffering the unfavorable effect of social strain on career orientation, whereas the strain moderation function of generic parent support was less pronounced. A broader implication of these findings is that family socioeconomic status (in terms of parents’ educational attainment in this study) does not solely determine adolescent career orientation, and that career guidance does not entirely rest on school efforts. Future research should identify ways to nurture career guidance of parents.

2017 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
Info
4. Bird, Sharon. and Rhoton, Laura. "Understanding Perceptions of Career Barriers and the Gendered Career Strategies of Women Scientists in Academia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Palais des Congrès de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, Aug 12, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1254227_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examines women scientists’ views about gendered career barriers and how their personal perspectives shape collective efforts among women to work together to ensure fairness in the distribution of opportunities and rewards in academic science and engineering careers. Because women remain the primary instigators, agitators and leaders of efforts to deconstruct institutionalized gender barriers and subtle gender biases (National Academy of Sciences, 2007), understanding how women faculty in academic science and engineering view these issues, is crucial. Using qualitative data from focus groups and interviews with fifty-one women science and engineering faculty at a research-intensive university in the Midwest United States, we address in this study the question, how do women scientists’ personal perspectives about being a scientist and, at the same time, about being a woman shape how they personally and collectively approach gendered career barriers in the workplace? We adapt Hochschild’s (1989) concept of “gender strategies” to our understanding of “gendered career strategies” to further explore how women’s personal views on doing science, along with past experiences and current circumstances, inform the development of personal gendered career strategies (Hochschild 1989) and the extent to which women’s personal strategies are conducive to collective efforts for reducing systemic gender barriers to in academic STEM.

2017 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
Info
5. Bjerre, Mette., Stearns, Elizabeth., Moller, Stephanie. and Dancy, Melissa. "College Major Choice, Career Perceptions and Plans: The Pathway to a Medical Career" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Palais des Congrès de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, Aug 09, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1246233_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite a substantial body of work on the underrepresentation of women and racial minorities in STEM fields and STEM college majors, most findings pertain to between-major differences. In this paper, we apply Social Cognitive Career Theory and extend Mickelson’s distinction between concrete and abstract attitudes to study the differences between students who successfully major in biological sciences and those who leave that major. We choose biology as our case study because of its unique position as the only STEM major with a reversed gender gap and because the biology major attracts more racial minorities than other STEM field. Using interview data from a large group of college seniors in North Carolina, we find that there are career perception differences between students who persist in biology and students who switch out of biology. Students who leave biology have abstract and vague perceptions of what a biology major entails and their future career trajectory. Students who persist tend to have concrete perceptions and specific occupational aspirations. Our findings suggest that increasing pre-college access to career counselling and exploration can increase STEM major retention and that better communicating the link between majors and specific occupations could increase female and minority interest in and persistence in STEM majors.

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