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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 498 words || 
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1. Bäuerlein, Kerstin., Rösler, Jan., Lübbeke, Christine., Stumpf, Eva., Weber, Angelika. and Schneider, Wolfgang. "Effects of Caregiver Continuity and Primary Caregiver Assignment on Caregiver-Child Attachment in Centers for Children Under Three" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-11-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p954574_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Secure attachment to primary caregivers serves children as basis for exploring their environment and therefore promotes cognitive and socioemotional development (Thompson, 2008; Cassibba, 2000). To help children in becoming securely attached to their caregivers in center-care, it is often recommended for each child to have a primary caregiver in the group responsible for the child’s wellbeing – ideally, for the entire childcare period (Ahnert, 2007; Barnas & Cummings, 1992; Ebbek et al., 2014). Yet, empirical evidence for this model is still scarce and inconclusive (cf. Cryer et al., 2003). Moreover, in many countries (e.g., Germany, Australia and the U.S.) caregiver continuity is inhibited by structural problems like high staff turnover in childcare centers (Bowes et al., 2003; Gable et al., 2007; Wertfein & Kofler, 2010). Thus the questions arise: (1) Does caregiver continuity (CC) influence children’s attachment security and wellbeing in childcare? (2) Is primary caregiver assignment (PCA) advantageous even if CC is not assured or is it, given those circumstances, better for children to familiarize equally to all caregivers in the group?
We analyzed the effects of CC and PCA for 62 under three year olds from 18 childcare groups. Caregiver-child attachment security was assessed by the Attachment-Q-Sort (AQS) 9 months after entry into childcare. As the dyadic attachment assessed by the AQS does not seem appropriate for groups without PCA, we additionally assessed children’s wellbeing in the group by a questionnaire we developed for the caregivers to fill in 6 months after entry into childcare.
In our sample 61 % of the children are in groups with PCA and for 55 % of these PCA-children CC was given during the 9-months period. In 10 out of the 11 PCA-groups for at least one child the primary caregiver changed. We found significant effects of CC (p=.02) and PCA (p<.01) on the AQS-dimension “attention”. Children without CC and children with PCA are better able to demand their caregiver’s attention appropriately for their own needs and for the caregiver’s possibilities in the situation. Regarding children’s wellbeing, children with CC show less negative emotions (p=.04), are more cooperative with adults (p=.03) and tend to be less aggressive (p=.09) in the group compared to children without CC.
On the one hand, CC seems to support social competence and wellbeing in center-care. That children with CC show less negative emotion and tend to be less aggressive indicates that they are less stressed and more comfortable. Moreover, children with CC show more cooperation with caregivers which is an important precondition for optimal learning (Kölsch-Bunzen, 2014). On the other hand, children without CC are better at demanding their caregivers’ attention appropriately compared to children with CC. Although PCA in contrast to CC seems to support children’s ability to demand their caregivers’ attention appropriately, PCA does not seem to support attachment and wellbeing in childcare as strongly as assumed. It has already been discussed if children in childcare attach to the group or the center rather than to a particular person (cf. Ahnert, 2010; Howes et al., 1998).

2004 - American Sociological Association Pages: 22 pages || Words: 8239 words || 
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2. Zincavage, Rebekah. "Negotiating Blurred Boundaries: An Analysis of Caregiving Work From the Perspectives of In-home Elder Caregivers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-11-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p109537_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many elderly men and women try to maintain their independence by remaining in their own homes and employing part or full time caregivers. In-home care services for the elderly is a dramatically growing need for many families. Elder care has been primarily studied from the vantage of financing and quality of care dismissive of the perspectives of the caregivers themselves. In this exploratory study of 20 in-home caregivers to the elderly in the Boston area, I conducted in-depth interviews gathering various points of view about the interactions caregivers have on the job that both enhance and hinder their job performance. I situate the on-the-job experiences, perceptions, and insights of in-home elderly care givers at the center of my analysis and focus on the experiences of those who work within this often ambiguous and intimate work setting. In doing so, I acknowledge the circumstances which plague home care work as a result of its physical location and place in-home caregivers in a distinctly compromising position, often dramatically altering the character of the dynamics between caregiver and care receiver. This paper sheds light on the structural difficulties, the impact of racial difference and how caregivers define and make sense of their job under often-arduous conditions. Further, I weave an explanation of the trans-historical nature of in-home caregiving work providing context and allowing for richer insight into this particular occupation. As such, this study contributes the voices of the people who are themselves caregivers to the discussion of carework by presenting their experiences as a way to inform future policy, quality of care and job satisfaction.

2012 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 9959 words || 
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3. Francis, Linda., Kypriotakis, Georgios., Bowman, Karen. and Rose, Julia. "Grief and Depression in the Context of Caregiving: The Emotional Outcomes of Bereaved Cancer Caregivers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Colorado Convention Center and Hyatt Regency, Denver, CO, Aug 16, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p565185_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: We investigated the differences between grief and depression among bereaved cancer caregivers, and whether the two emotional states have common or separate antecedents. We also explored how different aspects of grief may contribute to the risk for developing depression. The study conducted telephone interviews at two time points with family caregivers of advanced cancer patients receiving care at two cancer hospitals. 220 family caregivers were enrolled at baseline and re-interviewed an average of 3 months after the death of the patient. We found that grief and depressed mood have different situational antecedents, indicating different sources for each emotional state among bereaved caregivers. However, most effects on depressed mood in bereavement were mediated by grief. Grief proved complex, with diverse caregiving strains predicting different emotional components of grief. Bereavement after cancer caregiving does increase the risk of depression directly. Instead, the cancer caregiving situation influences the kind and severity of grief experienced, and bereaved caregivers reporting more severe grief, especially existential loss, are at higher risk of developing depression. These results may help in identifying bereaved caregivers more likely to develop long term psychological distress before the end of the six-month window required for diagnosis by the DSM-IV.

2017 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
Info
4. Tabler, Jennifer. and Geist, Claudia. "The Influence of Adult Caregiving and Unequal Division of Domestic Labor on Depression among Female Caregivers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Palais des Congrès de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, Aug 12, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1254225_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examines the link between mental health, adult caregiving, and housework performance among older adult couples. It is well established that women spend more time performing domestic tasks, including caregiving, than men at any age, however it is unclear how the household division of labor impacts the negative mental health effects of caregiving, in particular depression among older adults. We further explore whether these dynamics vary by gender. Adult caregiving is positively associated with depressive symptoms among women (coefficient=0.98, p<0.05), but not men (coefficient=0.53, p=0.16) net of absolute time spent on household tasks. These results become more pronounced when limited to couples and measures of the division of household labor are included; adult caregiving is positively associated with depressive symptoms among wives (coefficient=1.95, p<0.01), but was not associated with husbands’ mental health. Absolute time spent on domestic tasks was not associated with depressive symptoms of either husbands or wives when caregiving performance was taken into consideration. Although often examined separately from other forms of domestic labor, caregiving—particularly adult caregiving—is an important domestic task that may place increasing burdens on individuals and families. This study illustrates that gender differences in caregiving experiences contribute to differences in depression among men and women and between husbands and wives. Women experience increased mental health burdens associated with adult caregiving regardless of absolute time spent caregiving or on other domestic labor, and despite couple-based division of labor.

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