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2012 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 5293 words || 
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1. Leung, Ming. "Job Categories and Geographic Identity: A Category Stereotype Explanation for Geographic Agglomeration" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Colorado Convention Center and Hyatt Regency, Denver, CO, Aug 16, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p563749_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many previous explanations which attempt to explain geographic concentration of industries propose what I refer to as supply-side advantages to firms which co-locate geographically. I, instead, suggest an alternative, demand-side mechanism. I argue that in labor markets, particular types of work become associated with specific geographical locations. This association becomes a categorical stereotype – which leads buyers in markets to prefer sellers from particular geographic regions merely because they seem more legitimate. I test this theory in an online marketplace for freelancing services – a market which should not exhibit effects of alternative, more economically based, agglomeration mechanisms. I find that the greater the association between a particular job category and a geographic location – what I term job specific geographic identity – the more likely any freelancer from that country will win a job in that category. This effect holds net of other explanations reflected by measures of experience and price.

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 19 pages || Words: 4786 words || 
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2. Varga, Allison. "Monolithic Categories: Important or Not? Monolithic categories and their significance in Environmental Justice and Epidemiology." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p106951_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Postmodern philosophies claim that universal or monolithic categories should no longer
be used. In reality this is not the case because people are still defined by, perceived as, and treated in terms of these categories. In other words, these categories have an actual and material reality that directly influence people. Arguing that these categories do not exist in a world presently divided by such categories will not make the categories disappear nor their accompanied advantages and disadvantages. To theorize that universal categories are null and void does not take into account the important fact that some people, more than others, are harmed by many of today’s policies. Nor does it take into account the antithesis, that many people are at an advantage as a result of the same situation.
This paper looks at environmental justice generally and epidemiology specifically to illustrate that as far as safety and health are concerned it still matters what your race, sex, and socioeconomic status is. Within the United States poor people and people of color share a disproportionate burden of environmental hazards as well as a higher burden of health related problems. Unfortunately the field of epidemiology fails to take into account categories of race, age, sex, and location, all which seem to be very important variables if prevention and treatment are to be maximized. Within the environmental justice movement there a push to transform epidemiology so that it informs the concerns of specific communities.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 495 words || 
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3. Brandone, Amanda. "Children’s Changing Beliefs about Category Homogeneity Influence the Development of Category-Based Induction" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p958667_index.html>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: Category-based induction is a powerful mechanism for conceptual development: knowing facts about one category member allows us to make inferences about the entire category. However, although category members often share important similarities, categories are not homogeneous with respect to all properties. Thus, sensitivity to the distinction between individual- and category-level information and an understanding of when generalization is and is not appropriate are crucial for effective induction. When does children’s inductive reasoning reflect this knowledge? The current studies examined this question by exploring children’s assumptions about within-category homogeneity versus variability, and how the type of category, nature of the property, and age of the child influence induction.

Two studies examined how broadly 4- to 11-year-old children generalize properties within novel categories. In Study 1, participants were introduced to 24 novel animal, artifact, and human categories from a hypothetical planet (“Droid’s planet”). For each category, a single exemplar was depicted displaying a target property from a set of four types: parts (e.g., has ears), color (e.g., is blue), behavior/function (e.g., eats flowers), temporary/accidental (e.g., is dirty). Participants were asked to consider the prevalence of the property in the entire category (e.g., “This is a kind of animal called a floom. There are lots of flooms on Droid’s planet. This floom is orange. Now think about all the flooms on Droid’s planet. How many of them do you think are orange?”). Participants responded by selecting 1 of 4 samples of dots in which 100% (“all”), 80% (“lots”), 50% (“some”), or 20% (“just a few”) were colored in (scored 4-1, respectively).

Results showed significant developmental changes in category-based induction across childhood (Figure 1). Nine- to 11-year-olds (like adults) differentiated their responses by domain and the nature of the property. They generalized properties of animals more broadly than those of artifacts or humans and showed nuanced expectations about the extent to which animal, artifact, and human categories are homogeneous with respect to properties like parts and behavior. Seven- to 8-year-olds did not differentiate their responses by domain, but showed sensitivity to differences in the nature of properties—generalizing parts and behaviors more broadly than color and temporary/accidental features. Finally, 4- to 6-year-olds did not differentiate their responses by domain or property and instead demonstrated a general expectation that categories are homogeneous in nature—selecting the 100% sample significantly more frequently than the other choices.

Preliminary data from a second, ongoing study show that, when a simplified forced-choice question is used in place of the response scale (e.g., “Now think about all the flooms on Droid’s planet. Are all of them orange?”), 4-, 5- and 6-year-olds demonstrate some recognition that categories are not homogeneous with respect to all properties (Figure 2). Nevertheless, initial findings confirm a tendency to extend properties broadly and in domain-general ways until middle childhood.

Overall, these data demonstrate that how children constrain category-based inferences and the extent to which they rely on assumptions about within-category homogeneity continue to develop across childhood. Implications for conceptual development and theories of induction are discussed.

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 23 pages || Words: 9562 words || 
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4. Nigam, Amit. "What Do Categories Do? Disease Categories and the U.S. Healthcare System" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p107776_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This essay provides a theoretical literature review aimed at emphasizing the potential importance of categories and category systems in organizational sociology. Drawing on the empirical example of disease categories, it focuses on understanding what categories do. It highlights three themes for understanding what categories do in organizational contexts: organizing information, making meaning and exerting control.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 20 pages || Words: 8016 words || 
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5. Schwenken, Helen. and Caglar, Guelay. "Knowledge as an Analytical Category - Explaining the Gendered Commodification of Labour within WTO" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p180481_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In the field of international policy analysis knowledge is increasingly regarded as an important explanatory variable for explaining the enforcement of certain policy paradigms and policy change within international politics. These so called cognitivist aproaches, however, predominantly focus on the question of how knowledge becomes a source of political influence in situations of uncertainty (e.g. Adler/Haas 1992, Haas 1992). In this strand of literature knowledge is reduced to issue-specific knowledge or scientific knowledge respectively. We argue that the concept of knowledge has to be broadenend in order to understand the productiveness of knowledge and in order to explain how selective mechansims become inscribed into policy paradigms. In drawing on Michel Foucaults concept of power/knowledge we will develop an analytical framework that enables us to understand the interrelationship between knowledge generation and policy formulation. After having outlined the theoretical framework, we are going to apply it to the current trends in the commodification of mobile and migrant labour. Migration ? or as the WTO names it: "temporary movement of natural persons" ? is included into trade agreements such as the GATS (WTO, General Agreement of Trade in Services, Mode 4). Hence labour migration policies are part of trade and commodification policies. The way how labour mobility is included is based on very specific knowledge systems (scientific knowledge, normative knowledge, social knowledge etc.). Knowledge systems not only construct the policy problem that has to be regulated by GATS but also constitute the ?migrants? who are subject to commodification policies within GATS. We will deal with questions such as: How do the concepts of mobility and migration and correspondingly of gender get contructed through different systems of knowledge and how are they inscribed into GATS? Why does the GATS agreement not denominate 'migration', but only 'presence of natural persons' and 'mobilty'? Who are the gender-neutral "natural persons", who shall be a "GATS-migrant"? We specifically focus on gender and underlying gendered assumption within knowledge systems for two reasons: First, knowledge is seldomly regarded as being pre-structured along gendered lines, but our analysis shows that it is. Secondly, the focus on gender and commodification of labour enables us to visibilize to what extend international policies on trade in services are not gender-neutral by concept and outcome.

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