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2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 50 pages || Words: 15901 words || 
1. Tajima, Atsushi. "Consuming Racial Others: Caucasianization of Japanese Nation and Nationals" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <PDF>. 2019-06-27 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper critically analyzes how Japan and its people have referred to outsiders and “racial others,” particularly white Westerners, for their nation building and identity construction in the modern history. Japan is perhaps one of the “most Westernized non-Western” nations. Or at least, it is the most modernized and the “first” First-World nation among the non-Western nations in the history. To obtain this status, after the long national seclusion (the late-1500-1854), Japanese started vigorously introducing Western culture and ideology to modernize and Westernize the nation. By this rapid Westernization, Japanese attempted to obtain an equal status to the Western powers and to distinguish themselves from other non-white people. This process included a reconceptualization of their racial identity, and white Westerners became a new racial reference for Japanese to “become.” This is what Dower (1986) succinctly names “Caucasianization” of Japan and Japanese. The paper is a historical analysis on this process of Caucasianization, its function, and how it fulfilled Japan’s circumstantial needs. The analysis employs both primary and secondary materials from the sixteenth to twentieth centuries.

2008 - American Psychology - Law Society Words: 68 words || 
2. Caldwell, Roslyn M.., Penna, Brianna. and Ohara, Stacie. "School and Peer Influences on Delinquent Related Behavior among African American, Caucasian, and Latino Adolescents" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology - Law Society, Hyatt Regency Jacksonville Riverfront, Jacksonville, FL, Mar 05, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <>
Publication Type: Poster
Abstract: This study examined and compared school and peer influences to delinquent related behavior among 626 African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic adjudicated juvenile offenders. Caucasian and Hispanic exhibited increased problems influenced by the school environment that were related to delinquent behavior, particularly Hispanic males. Peer influences were not significant across racial and ethnic groups. Implications related to future research and clinical prevention and intervention are discussed.

2009 - SCRA Biennial Meeting Words: 305 words || 
3. Ozdemir, Metin. "Predictors of Future Efficacy among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SCRA Biennial Meeting, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey, Jun 18, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite presence of numerous evidences showing predictive power of self-efficacy, there is a dearth of studies on the predictors of self-efficacy beliefs. The present study aimed to examine predictors of adolescents’ future efficacy beliefs. Future efficacy is defined as the beliefs regarding the capability of being successful in future life.

The goal of the study was to examine how 1) family characteristics (e.g., SES, family conflict and support), 2) peer context (e.g. peer support, peer deviance), and 3) neighborhood context (e.g., neighborhood level SES) predicts adolescents’ future efficacy beliefs. Moreover, ethnic differences in the predictors of future efficacy were also examined.

The present study was based on secondary analysis of data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) (Earls & Visher, 1997). Multiple group regression analysis was performed using MPlus 4.21 (Muthen & Muthen, 2007) to predict future efficacy.

The results showed that the average future efficacy beliefs of African American and Caucasian adolescents were not significantly different, t(793) = -.082, p > .05. The results of regression analysis showed that the predictors explained significant amount of variance of future efficacy for both African American (R2 = .09) and Caucasian (R2 = .13) adolescents. Family socio-economic status (β = .09, p < .05) and family support (β = .14, p < .05) positively predicted future efficacy whereas deviance of peers (β = -.12, p < .05) negatively predicted future efficacy of African Americans. As for Caucasian adolescents, only family support (β = .28, p < .05) positively predicted future efficacy. Neighborhood level SES and family conflict were not significant predictors for both ethnic groups.

The findings of this study showed that future efficacy of African American and European American adolescents are associated with different sets of contextual factors. The implications of these ethnic differences were discussed.

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Words: 251 words || 
4. Powers, William., Cook, John., Fitch-Hauser, Margaret. and Worthington, Debra. "Listening Fidelity: Testing for Cross-Cultural Differences in U.S. Caucasian and U.S. Hispanic Listeners" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: Miscommunication and misunderstanding is a part of our everyday listening lives. While many misunderstandings are minor and inconsequential, some have serious implications for our lives (e.g., divorce, termination, war). While a number of factors may affect how much we understand (or misunderstand) someone, Mulanax & Powers (2001) suggest that important contributors to misunderstanding lie with a receiver’s listening orientation, capability, and skill. One means of conceptualizing listening misunderstandings is through the concept of Listening Fidelity
Listening Fidelity is defined as “the degree of congruence between the cognitions of a listener and the cognitions of a source following a communication event (Fitch-Hauser, Powers, O-Brien, & Hanson, 2007, p. 82). The LF measure provides a means of quantifying “the level of congruity between the mental images of the source and receive without the potential impact of the listener’s verbal, reading, and writing proficiencies in describing the cognitions developed as a function of a communication event” (Fitch-Hauser et al, 2007, p. 82). Mulanax and Powers (2001) established the initial reliability and predictive validity of the LF measure using a U.S. American student population.
Most recently, Fitch-Hauser et al. (2007) explored a variety of other variables potentially related to Listening Fidelity. They concluded that Listening Fidelity is an important aspect of the listening construct, addressing the accuracy of reception.
This study examines the listening fidelity construct in a cross-cultural setting. Analysis of data collected from U.S. American Caucasian and U.S. Hispanic American students is presented.

2012 - Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies 44th Annual Convention Words: 137 words || 
5. Akopov, Sergey. "'The Person of Caucasian Nationality' as Visible Minority in Contemporary Russia: Transnational Networks and Multicultural Challenges" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies 44th Annual Convention, New Orleans Marriott, New Orleans, LA, <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: On December 11, 2010 thousands of youth representing football fans (Spartak-Moscow) and those supportive of nationalist slogans held a rally at Manezhnaya square (Moscow) which turned violent against the young people with Caucasian origin. Azerbaijanis, Armenians Chechens, Georgians – peoples with very distinct, ancient and different cultural heritages for the nationalists in Russia all look the same: “The Person of Caucasian nationality”, or “the enemy”. This is true perhaps with the exception of South Ossetians and Abkhazians, due to the specifics of Russian Media and Elite Discourses after the Russian-Georgian conflict in 2008. The recent public opinion polls directly and indirectly confirm this, as the paper documents. Given the importance of xenophobic issues against people of Caucasian origin in Russia the paper analyzes the differences in perceptions of descendants from Northern Caucasus (Russian citizens) and Southern Caucasus.

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