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2012 - The Law and Society Association Words: 453 words || 
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1. Li, Wei. and He, Xiangbai. "Implementing Water Abstraction Charge Regulation in China: A Study of Enterprises’ Responsiveness to Charge Increase at the Local Level" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village Resort, Honolulu, HI, Jun 03, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-10-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p560937_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Economic charges have been used in several countries to tackle water over-exploitation problems. Despite various rules and extents in applications, in general governments enforce a licensing system to control the amount of water withdrawn directly from water sources, and at the same time, an abstraction charge is levied for each licensed volume. The proponents of these policies claim that when design properly, they could correct market failures at the lowest cost to the society and promote the adoption of new technologies (Merrett 1997).

Over the last 20 years, as part of the policy response to water shortage, China’s central government embarked onto the journey of experimenting economic charges at the local level by introducing water abstraction licence and abstraction charge policies. Through licensing water usage rights and levying charges for possessing the rights, the aim of central government is to allocate water resources efficiently and cut back water use. This attempt, however, has been fairly unsuccessful. Water users seem to be price “insensitive” to economic charges and China’s consumption of water resources has continued to increase rapidly over the last decade (Zhang 2001).

This article presents a new approach to analyzing enforcement of market-based policies for water resources in China. Expanding the analysis beyond a rational choice approach, it demonstrates the institutional dimension of policy implementation at the local level in China. Based on 40 firm-level interviews collected from a city in northern China, we aim to identify industrial water users’ views on water abstraction policies and their incentives to comply, as well as the various ways that organizations respond to water abstraction policies, from a institutional perspective. In particular, the industry survey is designed to obtain relatively equal distribution of four major industry types for the city studied – heavy manufacturing, printing, chemical products and electronics. From a self-compiled list of known manufacturing plants in these industries, a subgroup is randomly picked.

The finding from the interviews reveals that while some challenges in implementing water abstraction charges are intrinsic ones that are built in the policy design, some other challenges are embedded in China’s own water institutions and situations. Both the way that the water abstraction charge policy is designed and the structure of water management systems in China have caused local enterprises to act differently from original regulatory expectations, leading to regulation enforcement failures. In particular, as a result of decentralization, the relationships among central government, local governments and local enterprises have changed significantly. Overlooking this institutional dimension would doom to failure any efforts to implement market-based instruments. Therefore, instead of continually searching for alternative instruments or reverting to engineering interventions, central policy makers should focus more on establishing mechanisms that provide local enterprises with proper incentives to respond to charge increase.

2005 - American Society of Criminology Words: 82 words || 
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2. Pollack, Shoshana., Green, Vivien. and Allspach, Anke. "Women Charged in Domestic Violence Situations: Unintended Consequences of Mandatory Charge Policies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Royal York, Toronto, <Not Available>. 2019-10-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p33336_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This presentation will report on the findings from a study conducted in Toronto with women charged in domestic violence situations. Interviews with women charged, either dually or soley, in heterosexual domestic violence situations revealed that the gender neutrality of mandatory charge policies decontextualizes abused women’s use of force and that criminalizing women’s responses to male violence increases their vulnerability to further abuse. Policy reccomendations to improve the criminal justice response to abused women charged in domestic violence situations will be discussed.

2013 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 161 words || 
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3. Cesar, Gabriel., Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique. and Greenwald, Mark. "Girls Charged with Domestic Violence Against a Parent: A Profile of (Charged) Female Juvenile Offenders" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Nov 14, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-10-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p666148_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research on juvenile domestic violence offenders has been largely limited to examinations of violence between intimate partners. Emerging research focused on violence between children and parents, however, suggests that gender and race play a significant role in the ecology of violence perpetrated against parents. Still, research has continued to focus on boys, depicting the typical juvenile domestic violence offender as generally older, white and male. Broadening the existing knowledge of juvenile domestic violence, the study examines data from the case histories of 300 female juveniles charged with domestic violence in the state of Florida. A mixed methodology is employed which analyzes both quantitative as well as narrative data from probation reports and the Florida Department of Justice. Of particular interest are the context of gender differential in the exchanges, the use of emotional versus physical violence, and the severity of the injury leading to the charge of domestic violence. Implications for future research and female-specific assessment, treatment, and prevention are discussed.

2012 - 43rd Decision Sciences Institute Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 65 words || 
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4. Nicolae, Mariana. and Ferguson, Mark. "The Unintended Consequences of Charging (or Not Charging) Baggage Fees in the U.S. Airline Market" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 43rd Decision Sciences Institute Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriot, San Francisco, CA, Nov 17, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p600179_index.html>
Publication Type: Non-Refereed Research Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In this paper we evaluate whether a marketing strategy decision such as charging or not charging fees for the second checked bag had operational implications. Using data from major U.S. airlines, we examine whether it caused airlines a decline in their operational performance as measured by departure delays.

2005 - The Law and Society Words: 151 words || 
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5. Hotta, Syugo. "Saving Legalese and Length Sentences from a False Charge" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society, J.W. Marriott Resort, Las Vegas, NV, <Not Available>. 2019-10-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p17715_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: There have been numerous studies of Japanese legal language. Most, if not all, of them condemn the use of legalese and unreasonably lengthy sentences of statutory texts. However, such a view is too simplistic, naïve, ungrounded, and hard to accept, because not all sentences involving legalese or long sentences are incomprehensible. The existing literature all fails to recognize such facts and wrongfully convicts the choice of vocabulary and length of sentences of the cause of incomprehensibility of legal texts. In this presentation, legal language that appears in statutory texts and various legal settings in Japan will be examined in terms of “syntactic structure unique to Japanese language” and “sentence-processing,” and the true culprit of the incomprehensibility will be investigated and indicted. This study will add to the scholarship of language and law in that it identifies the real cause of incomprehensibility of Japanese legal language which no previous studies have addressed.

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