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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Li, Yanfang., Liu, Lijun. and Xu, Liangyuan. "Mother-Child, Teacher-Child Relationship and Only Child, Non-only Child’s Early Social Behaviors in Chinese Urban and Rural Areas" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-12-06 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p949607_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Chinese One-Child Policy (OCP) implemented in 1979 stipulated couples can only have one child with some exceptions such as rural couples whose first child was a girl, which leading non-only children mainly distributed over rural areas (Cameron, Erkal, Gangadharan, & Meng, 2013). But more and more urban couples have the second child because of the softening of OCP and the influence of Confucianism, which proposes that more children will bring more happiness (Settles, Sheng, Zang, & Zhao, 2013). The distribution change of only and non-only children makes it necessary to investigate their early social behaviors under the perspective of urban and rural difference. Children’s early social behaviors are closely related to their relationships with mothers and teachers (Pianta, Nimetz, & Bennett, 1997). Previous studies (Blake, 1981; Hao & Feng, 2002; Zhang, 1998) suggested that only children’s mother-child (M-C) relationship and teacher-child (T-C) relationship were different from those of non-only children. Therefore, this study will examine the situations and influences of M-C relationship and T-C relationship on Chinese only and non-only children ’s early social behaviors, in which the moderator role of urban-rural status will be probed into.

The sample included 126 rural only children (M moth age = 54.01, 74 boys), 94 rural non-only children (M moth age = 54.45, 50 boys), 168 urban only children (M moth age = 54.63, 100 boys) and 155 urban non-only children (M moth age = 55.04, 80 boys) from 38 suburban kindergartens in Beijing, China. Their mothers and one of their teachers also participated in the study. Mothers reported child characteristics (month age, gender, urban-rural status and sibling status), family SES variables (mother and father’s educational levels, family income) and M-C relationship. Teachers rated T-C relationship, children’s social skills, internalizing behavior problems and externalizing behavior problems.

The results were as follows: (1) M-C closeness positively predicted children’s social skills and mainly manifested on non-only children from both urban and rural areas, while M-C conflict positively predicted all four groups’ internalizing behavior problems. (2) T-C conflict negatively predicted children’s social skills and especially manifested on urban only children (slope = -0.10, t = -3.43, p < 0.001) (see Figure 1). (2) Rural only children were most disadvantageous with most T-C conflict and most internalizing behavior problems than other three groups, and the simple slope test showed T-C conflict aggravated their internalizing behavior problems (slope = 0.20, t = 6.16, p < 0.001) (see Figure 2[a]). For rural only children’s externalizing behavior problems, T-C conflict also played an aggravating role (slope = 0.25, t = 8.70, p < 0.001) (see Figure 2[b]), but fortunately, M-C closeness acted as a compensatory factor (slope = -0.08, t = -2.06, p < 0.05) (see Figure 2[c]).

The study implicated that mothers should particularly improve their close relationship with rural only children to reduce their externalizing behavior problems. And for teachers, avoiding conflicts with children will be favorable to improve urban only children’s social skills and rural only children’s behavior problems.

2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 10630 words || 
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2. Derby, C.. "Child Labor Exploitation or Child Socialization? Observations from an Action Research Combating Child Domestic Servitude" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-06 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p725458_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This article focuses on child labor exploitation and complements existing scholarship affirming the relevance and applicability of sociological research to policy and solutions to social problems. It outlines the interplay of research employing the approaches of phenomenology and grounded theory and the implementation of activities aimed at combating human trafficking with specific emphasis on child domestic servitude. It identifies some of the factors debilitating against efforts to fight child labor exploitation as the denial amongst urban elite that the problem exists and a disconnection between cultural practices and efforts, including laws geared towards the fight. Public officials, legislators, university professors, and prominent advocates of human rights were some of the persons who argued against the framework of child domestic servitude conceptualized in this study. They argued this was an attempt to adulterate a mainstream Ghanaian cultural component of socialization, but such child servants worked long hours a day, and if enrolled in schools, were usually late and had little to no time for after school studies; they were required to work before and after school. It appears such officials defended the practice as culturally beneficial in so far as their children were not the victims, the violations of their basic rights as stipulated in the laws of Ghana notwithstanding. Data were primarily qualitative and collected at various stages of the project to evaluate progress and determine the structure, direction, and any necessary modifications to the strategies of the project.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 498 words || 
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3. Mendoza, Marina., McFadyen-Ketchum, Lisa., Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana. and Watamura, Sarah. "Increased Child Externalizing Symptoms in Families Receiving Only Child-Directed vs. Child and Adult-Directed Intervention" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-12-06 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p962343_index.html>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: Background: Typically, intervention programs that target parents are not coupled with programs that target children. Increasingly, this disconnect in services delivered to populations identified by similar risk factors (e.g. poverty, low parental education), has been challenged as illogical and inefficient and efforts to provide integrated and explicit two generation interventions are increasing (Haskins, Garfinkel, & McLanahan, 2014). Here we examine whether the impact of maternal mental health on child outcomes is moderated by adult-directed service utilization among families already receiving Early Head Start (EHS) child-directed services. We focus on maternal mental health as the long-lasting negative effects on child outcomes are well-known (Goodman, 2007), and we focus on externalizing problems because children living in poverty are at increased risk for externalizing problems (Bradley & Corwyn, 2002).

Sample: The sample is the first cohort of an ongoing study of early life stress; 67 EHS children [6-46 months (M=25 months), 46% female] and their primary caregivers. Most caregivers (94%) completing questionnaires were mothers and 61% identified Spanish as their first language. The sample was low income with 60% living at or below the poverty line. Average parental adverse childhood experience score was 3.6 (range, 1-9), indicating a significant risk exposure history.

Method: Analyses included measures of maternal mental health utilizing the total score from the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), and the total score from the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD7; Spitzer, Kroenke, Williams, & Lowe, 2006 ), early externalizing behaviors were assessed by parent report on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) or for infants under 18 months the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA; Briggs-Gowan & Carter, 2006). An assessment of adult-oriented government service utilization (GSU) was summed from reported use of six services (0 = never used; 1 = current or past use): government sponsored career services and job training, continuing education, mental health services, mentor, and therapist/psychologist. Reliabilities for the measures were good with Cronbach’s Alphas ranging from .72 to .96.

Results: Cross-correlations among key variables are reported in Table 1. OLS regressions with the MODPROBE SPSS macro (Hayes and Matthes, 2009), revealed that GSU by parents moderates the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child externalizing behaviors (b=-.01, p<05). Children with parents who have low and average GSU show an increase in externalizing behaviors as maternal depressive symptoms increase, (Figure 1). Similarly, GSU moderates the relationship between maternal anxiety symptoms and child externalizing behaviors (b=-.01, p<01). Children with parents who have low and average GSU show an increase in externalizing behaviors as maternal depressive symptoms increase, (Figure 2).

Discussion: These preliminary findings suggest that among families receiving child-directed intervention, maternal mental health impacts externalizing behaviors in children most when adult-oriented utilization of government service is average or below. This speaks to the great potential of providing, enrolling, and retaining families in two generation intervention services that target parents’ ability to improve their own educational, job training, and mental health needs while providing child-directed services, including parenting support.

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