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2018 - MPSA Annual Conference Words: 35 words || 
1. Kwon, Jaebeom. "China Wielding a Whip and Hitting Japan: Analyzing China’s Use of Economic Retaliation toward Japan and Its Effects" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual Conference, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 05, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study analyzes China’s economically punitive measures to coerce one of its most important neighboring countries, Japan, to make its policies more favorable to China, and examines the effectiveness of China’s use of economic retaliation.

2018 - MPSA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
2. McDougal, Eddie. "U.S. Foreign Policy on China’s Man-made Atolls in the South China Sea" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual Conference, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 05, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Undergraduate Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Five countries including China have partial and total sovereignty claims in the South China Sea. How should the U.S. further its interests in the South China Sea given China’s ongoing construction and militarization of seven manmade islands?

2018 - Comparative and International Education Society Conference Words: 779 words || 
3. Li, Manli., Ding, Ruoxi. and Liu, Weitong. "Does general education match the target of China’s top universities? Multi-case comparative study on liberal arts colleges in China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Hilton Mexico City Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico, Mar 25, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: 1.Background Introduction
After a two-year teaching trial, Xinya College of Tsinghua University started to enroll students from National Entrance Examination to College in June, 2016. The first class of Xinya College was made up of 62 students who are almost the best students from every province around the nation.
As it is known to all, Tsinghua University ranks Top 2 in China and is always proud of its student quality. So, why do the university specially concern the operation of Xinya College? Why do we, the educational researchers, specially concern the development and reform in Xinya College?
The Xinya College’s statues state that this college is targeted at cultivating top-notch innovative talents and exploring the general education mode with Chinese characteristics.
Tsinghua is not the first top universities in China to set a special liberal arts college aimed at cultivating future elites for China society. Fudan College in Fudan University was established in 2005. Then came Yuanpei College of Peking University in 2007 and Boya College of Sun Yat-sen University in 2009. Generally speaking, these special colleges recruit ‘the best of the best students’ and take top-notch innovative talents as ultimate targets.
What is ‘top-notch innovative talent’? It may a peculiar concept in Chinese universities, closely related to national strategies of revitalizing the country through science, education and talents. As a rapidly rising economy, China has never concealed its desire for cutting-edge technologies and elites in various fields under the circumstance of Industry 4.0 and global competition. The future elites, or top-notch innovative talents are possessed of three features: broad horizon and profound knowledge, critical thinking and innovative consciousness, and a strong sense of social responsibility. The first feature is the foundation of the following two and can be cultivated based on interdisciplinary training in an ideal learning environment, which urges the top universities to make efforts on.
Actually, Chinese scholars learned the experience of general education from western tradition in 1980s to improve and modernize higher education. However, practices of general education reforms barely succeeded in universities nationwide, the reasons for which were the divergence between the idea of western liberal education and the realistic demand of Chinese society. Thus, there is large potential needing exploiting in localization of general education, especially for top universities who bear mission of providing top-notch innovative talents for national construction.

2.Research Objectives
The paper conducts qualitative research on the general education reforms in form of special liberal arts colleges in four universities, concentrating on abstracting a mode of Chinese general education. And the critical step is to match the outcome with target, attempting to answer whether the liberal arts colleges in Chinese context can generate the talents required by the nation.

3.Research Design
1)Research questions
Q1. What are the homogeneity and heterogeneity of liberal arts colleges in four universities?
Q2. Why do general education practices in four colleges have difference and how can we explain the difference?
Q3. Do these general education practices match and realize the target of talent cultivation?

2) Research Methods
We use multi-case study to investigate the ideas, practices and outcomes of four liberal arts colleges.
We develop a framework to analyze every case independently:
a.The history and development of the college
b.The social context where the college was born and where the college is anchored now
c.The world of meaning structured by all actors in the college, including students, teachers and administrators
d.The heterogeneity of this college, such as the recognition from the academia and the public, the control of discourse power, the value of the degree acquired in this college and the unique ecosystem
e.The homogeneity consistent with another three colleges, such as the features learned from western colleges or learned mutually

The data is collected by interview, participant observation in classrooms and daily activities and materials offered by colleges.
We have finished data collection in Xinya College, including interviewing 10 students from families with different socioeconomic status and areas with diverse economic levels.

4.Initial Findings
The most important finding is that students, teachers and administrators in Xinya College hold different dispositions towards general education and demonstrate different requirement from the college.
The administrators hold educational perpetualism, and the teachers tend to insist essentialism. Meanwhile, the students are almost pragmatist. The intension among the three declines the cohesion and recognition within the college; but they choose to compromise with each other and act in concert, which brings a misconception to the public that the college fits very well in Chinese context.

[1]Cuban, L. (1990). Stability and change in curriculum. In P. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of research on curriculum (pp.216-247).New York: Macmillan.
[2] Cuban, L. (1995). The hidden variable: how organizations influence teacher responses to secondary science curriculum reform. Theory Into Practice, 34(1), 4-11.
[3] Huebener, T. (1945). General Education in a Free Society. General education in a free society :. Harvard University Press.

2018 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7596 words || 
4. Li, Xuemeng. "Chocolate City in China: The Challenge of Multiculturalism from Africans in China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center & Philadelphia Marriott, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 09, 2018 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: With an increasing foreign population, China now is facing the challenge of multiculturalism. Among all the international immigration communities in China, African communities in the southern cities are the ones experiencing the most discrimination. Among all the explanations from both English and Chinese-speaking academic worlds, main critiques and defenses had focused on the narrow sense of race and ethnicity most Chinese people hold. I argue that there are several contradictories worth attention. First, in the micro-level, there is a contradiction between Chinese being both nationality and ethnicity, and the African communities’ wish of being recognized as legal residents; However, the acceptance of multiculturalism might require redefining or even rebuilding Chinese ethnicity (the process could be similar to how American identity is defined). Second, the contradiction between the top decision (namely “brothers” and “business partners” as China-Africa international relations), and the disapproval from the bottom (Chinese people’s hostility towards African communities). In meso-level, the embracing of multiculturalism must achieve in a dynamic process in every life through endless interactions between local Chinese communities and the African communities. In this sense, studying the conflicts between Chinese people and African immigrants in China equals to interpret how Chinese as a homogenous ethnicity takes and embraces the new “invasion” of foreign cultures under the era of globalization. Third, there is a contradiction between the expected social position China and Chinese have for Africans (temporary entry as businessmen) and the basic wish that most immigrants hold: to become a citizen. In the macro-level, the current social system in contemporary China is also challenged by multiculturalism. Instead of simply using the label “racist” to explain the issue, the challenge that multiculturalism brought up in different levels in Chinese society need to be fully analyzed respectively.

2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Pages: 48 pages || Words: 22794 words || 
5. Liebman, Alex. "China's Energy Security in Historical Perspective: Natural Resources and the Rise of the United States, Japan, and China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Growing demand for natural resources has become an issue of primary importance in China's foreign policy, and has led many observers to argue that conflict with the United States and other states in Asia is growing more likely. This paper evaluates the historical record on that question: under what circumstances have the resource needs of previous rising powers led to conflict with other states? I propose two independent variables: the ability to extract natural resources at home and the openness of the international trade system. In cases where the rising power has a large domestic resource base, and can supplement domestic production with easy access to foreign resources through trade, rising powers are less likely to generate conflict. In situations where the rising power has a limited resource base at home and the international trade system is closed, on the other hand, are more likely to lead to war. The paper evaluates three cases. For the United States in the late 19th century, massive domestic reserves and the first great era of globalization led to a “peaceful” rise. For Japan in the 1930s, an extremely poor resource base and rising trade barriers contributed to conflict. Finally, the paper turns its attention to China and argues that this important contemporary case more closely resembles the rise of the United States than that of Japan. China’s domestic resource base remains quite large, and the international trade system is unprecedented in its level of openness.

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