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2004 - International Communication Association Pages: 28 pages || Words: 6855 words || 
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1. Cao, Zhanwei. and Li, Xigen. "Effect of Growing Internet Newspapers on Circulation of Print Newspapers in the U.S." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-07-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p112548_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: An Internet survey of publishers and online editors found that growth of the Internet newspaper yielded a slightly negative effect on print newspapers' circulation. The findings suggest that the smaller the newspaper, the larger effect the Internet newspapers had on the print newspapers. Small and medium-sized print newspapers showed obvious decreasing circulation since 1990 while the declining trend was not evident for large newspapers. The readership of the Internet newspaper had been considerably growing since 1995. However, scale of the circulation decline of print newspapers did not show evident replacing effect of the Internet newspapers. About half of the publishers and online editors did not regard the Internet newspaper as a major factor that reduced readership of print newspapers.

2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 18 pages || Words: 5389 words || 
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2. Bakker, Pieter. "The Impact of Free Daily Newspapers on the Circulation of Paid Newspapers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-07-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p172633_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Paid dailies in Western Europe and Northern America have seen their circulation decline in the last decade. During the same period free daily newspapers have seen their circulation go up to more than 30 million. In this paper the relation between the two developments is studied in 14 European markets. Circulation development before and after the introduction of free papers was compared. Also data from countries without free papers were used to assess whether non-free dallies markets also suffered. Media substitution, however, seems to be modest at least. Other factors may be more important causes for the decline in paid newspaper circulation. Long term effects, however, are not yet clear.

2005 - International Studies Association Pages: 27 pages || Words: 5417 words || 
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3. Gadinger, Frank. and Bueger, Christian. "Circulating knowledge: Science-policy practices, border traffic, and knowledge transfer in (I)nternational (R)elations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-07-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p72177_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: IR's relationship to policy is at stake again. The issue was absent from IR’s agenda during the second debate and the “technocratic” disappointment after the Vietnam War, but a small but growing body of literature has been addressing the topic since the 1990s. The paper argues that the discussion of the science-policy nexus of IR so far has focussed too narrowly on questions of knowledge transfer and on the impact of IR on policy. In opposition to both positions that postulate the existence of a widening gap between IR and policy, and post-modern positions that seek to eliminate any cultural difference between IR and policy, we propose a network model of IR's science-policy nexus. In the knowledge society, IR and other sciences should be seen as “epistemic cultures” constituted by a variety of practices that are linked to policymakers and other social actors. By drawing on recent insights of practice theory and the concepts of theorists of the Cultural Studies of Scientific Knowledge such as Bruno Latour we first identify the basic practices of IR and their relationship to policy. Second, we set up an analytic framework by which these practices can be studied. We claim that the relevance and impact of IR and any gap that might exist between IR and policy should be empirically investigated before prescriptive conclusions for IR can be drawn. The central task of the reflective IR practitioner therefore not as to avoid or to bridge a gap, but to carefully balance his practices.

2007 - NCA 93rd Annual Convention Pages: 16 pages || Words: 4148 words || 
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4. Erni, John. "Agents of Cultural Circulation: The Tourist Service Class as Cultural Intermediaries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 93rd Annual Convention, TBA, Chicago, IL, Nov 15, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p189132_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: There has been a significant rise of the ‘service class’ worldwide today, which has been driven partly by the global significance of tourism. Today, Hong Kong’s service-oriented economy and vast consumer culture continue to accelerate in the age of rapid socio-economic integration into the Pearl River Delta region (PRD), resulting in a dynamic cultural belt. This paper focuses on tourist service providers as special ‘agents of cultural circulation’ whose occupations, work routines, cultural knowledge, social discourses, and self-identities are situated between the production and consumption of tourism, between supply and demand, ‘the cultural’ and ‘the economic.’ It explores their significant role as ‘cultural intermediaries’ defined as a unique class of creative practitioners involved chiefly in the provision of symbolic goods and services.

2009 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 475 words || 
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5. Hall, Rachel. "Disappearing Service: The Circulation of Postmortem and Portrait Photographs of U.S. Military Personnel" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Renaissance Hotel, Washington D.C., Nov 05, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-07-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p318416_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper explores public discourse about the Pentagon’s ban on photographing flag-draped caskets of US casualties returning to Dover Air Force Base. The policy was initiated by George Herbert Walker Bush during the first Gulf War and has been rigorously enforced by the George W. Bush administration since the invasion of Iraq. When challenged on the policy, the Pentagon claimed it was designed to protect military families. This argument frames the ban on casket photos as a compassionate effort to protect suffering families from public attention and politicization in a manner that assumes grieving the war dead is a private, familial, and apolitical matter. This paper tests the Pentagon’s rationale by placing the contemporary controversy within the history of how postmortem and portrait photography have been used in American cultural practices of grieving. The paper will also test the Pentagon’s rationale against statements made by members of military families regarding the policy. If, in fact, the research bears out the Pentagon’s claim: military families do not want casket photos made and circulated because they find these images offensive, then one must ask what, precisely, renders these images offensive. The Pentagon claims it is an issue of privacy, but casket photos do not reveal the identities of particular soldiers. I propose that to the extent that these images are offensive to military families it is because of the anonymous manner in which they picture U.S. casualties. In the context of a controversial war, the anonymous character of these images offends because it connotes the individual soldier’s insignificance and, thereby, makes the visual suggestion that these men and women may have died in vain. My thesis is born out by the widespread acceptance of military portraits of war casualties in the mainstream media as fitting tributes to the dead. While both photographic genres: casket photos and military portraits, are highly conventional and honorific in tone, the first set picture the relationship between the nation-state and blood sacrifice too directly via the marriage of flags and coffins. But the casket photos are also images of indirection. They picture US casualties twice covered over: once by the coffin and again by the flag. Within the context of an unpopular war, the photographs are dangerous because they visualize military rituals for rendering the material costs of war symbolic. Enforced in the name of military families, the ban has the additional effect of disappearing the sacrifices of those families from public view and discounting their experiences from public debate. The ban claims to protect military families from having their losses politicized. In so doing, it reinforces the segregation of military families from other American citizens, thereby forcing them to bear the brunt of the war in private and on behalf of the American public.

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