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2017 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 249 words || 
1. Lincoln, Toby. "Cities, Capital Cities and Special Cities: Postwar Reconstruction and the Chinese Nation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: During the first half of the twentieth century, the vicissitudes of war and revolution brought devastation to many Chinese cities. This was followed by unprecedented urban development as the Chinese Communist Party transformed so-called capitalist consumerist cities into socialist production centres. This paper explores the ideas about the reconstruction of cities during and immediately after China’s War with Japan. The discussion among intellectuals and government officials about whether to move the capital city back to Nanjing provided a platform for debate about postwar development. Meanwhile, China’s urban planning and city organization laws allowed municipal officials to advocate for their own city’s importance within the nation.

The discussions have several common themes. China continued to face threats to its existence, and so national defence remained important. The state project to create a modern industrial nation involved urban planning, and the government adopted international innovations such as zoning to realise its vision. However, the way in which such a vision was to be implemented differed across China. In some cities, destruction and resistance to the Japanese formed the basis for a postwar narrative that sought to return the city to its pre-war prosperous status. Elsewhere, and particularly in the former Manchukuo, Japanese occupation and urban growth meant that some cities were now in a position to assert their importance within regional and national networks. Finally, those advocating for their cities across the country often compared them to others around the world, illustrating how China saw its postwar experience in international terms.

2010 - 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions Words: 467 words || 
2. Nishigaki, Yu. "Translating the Order for Compact City: Technology Transfer in the Study for the City Master Plan of Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Komaba I Campus, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: In this presentation, I offer a case study of a technology transfer from Japan to Mongolia to improve the capacity for city planning through “The study on city master plan and urban development program of Ulaanbaatar City (UBMPS),” by the JICA (Japanese International Cooperation Agency) study team. I especially focus on the pilot project to improve the living conditions in “ger areas (a ger is a traditional Mongolian tent).” In doing so, I aim to examine how the Japanese planners found and aimed to organize local orders to implement their plan, especially the “compact city model” and the “community-driven mechanism” in ger areas through a pilot project with their Mongolian counterparts. I aim to make clear the multifold comparison or translation process in the technology transfer through the study for future city planning
Since the end of the 20th century, the population of Ulaanbaatar city has increased rapidly as a result of urban migration. Most of the newcomers from the countryside have settled in “ger areas” in the peripheral area of Ulaanbaatar. The population of the ger areas accounts for about 60 % of the population of Ulaanbaatar City. Air pollution caused by smoke from ger chimneys has become a major urban problem in Ulaanbaatar. One major aim of the urban planning for Ulaanbaatar City approved by the Mongolian government in 2002 is to replace ger areas with apartment areas. But in 2003, the land privatization policy was implemented targeting residential sites in ger areas, which put a stop to this plan.
   In 2007, a JICA study team was organized to improve this situation at the request of the Mongolian government. The objectives of the study were 1) to revise the current master plan, 2) to prepare an action plan, and 3) to transfer technology to improve the capacity for city panning. As a result, the study team proposed the compact city model to control urban sprawl in ger areas and formulated the “Neighborhood area development plan” through community-driven mechanisms especially in the pilot project for the improvement of the living conditions in ger areas.
I discuss how the Japanese planners translated their framework of the compact city or “Neighborhood area development plan” into the order of the dwellings of the residents in ger areas. And I aim to point out that these translations by Japanese planners did not work alone, rather they worked with some previous translations implemented by international organizations, the government, NGOs, and the local residents correlatively, especially in the land privatization process and the urban development practices under the conditions of the post-socialist transformation. Through these divergent and correlated processes, the local residential units called “hashaa” in ger areas mediated translations and comparisons among the land privatization policy, the urban development projects, and the study for the city master plan by the JICA study team.

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