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2013 - International Communication Association Words: 342 words || 
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1. Bachen, Christine., Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro. and Raphael, Chad. "Civic Games and Civic Gaps: Which Students Benefit Most From Civic Game Play?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, <Not Available>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p639473_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Prior research suggests that civic games can provide benefits, but are unlikely to benefit all students equally. Research suggests that civic education often boosts civic learning and participation most dramatically among economically and educationally advantaged students, who are already more likely to engage in public life. Yet some research on game-based learning suggests that it most engages low-achieving students and those with greater experience of social game play. Is civic game-based education more likely to make the civically rich richer or to engage the least civically engaged?

In addition, as Joseph Kahne and Joel Westheimer have shown, civic educators have different goals and approaches to citizenship. These include a traditional vision of molding personally responsible citizens (who express patriotism and obey laws), a mainstream vision of inspiring participatory citizens (who vote and join voluntary organizations), and a critical vision of preparing justice-oriented citizens (who try to transform the root causes of injustice in social, political, and economic realms). Can civic games increase interest in practicing each of these kinds of citizenship?

We address these two research questions through a multi-site quasi-experimental study in Northern California high schools, which examines the impact of a game-based curriculum on students’ interest in civic learning and action. As part of their global history and social studies classes, students played a life simulator game, REAL LIVES. The game allows players to experience conditions in countries around the world by discovering how an individual character’s life is shaped by social, economic, and political constraints and opportunities, as well as by the players’ own life choices. Game play was integrated into class discussion and assignments.

We find that the curriculum most benefitted students who were low-achieving and least civically engaged. Low-achieving students made the greatest gains in political interest. The least civically engaged students most increased their interest in practicing personally responsible and participatory forms of citizenship. We conclude with suggestions for how designers and educators can replicate these findings that games can stimulate learning and engagement among students who are the least civically experienced and educationally successful.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 27 pages || Words: 7611 words || 
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2. Gleeson, Shannon., Bloemraad, Irene. and Ramakrishnan, S.. "Latino Civic Organizing in Comparative Perspective: How Individual, Community and Contextual Determinants Shape Civic and Political Participation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 11, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p103732_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper reports on findings from the larger Immigrant Civic Engagement Project. The project includes focus group interviews with immigrant and native-born Californians, interviews with leaders and staff of a variety of non-profit and civic organizations, interviews with local officials and policy-makers in these communities, and analysis of newspaper coverage of immigrant communities. Here we report on preliminary findings for seven communities in the Silicon Valley (or South Bay) area. In particular, we compare and contrast the experience of the Mexican-American community (both immigrant and later generations) to those of the Indian, Vietnamese and Portuguese.

We argue that sensitivity to the immigrant experience is vital in understanding social and political capital, and that the barriers faced by foreign-born Latinos cannot just be reduced to individual skills and resources, though these are important. The recognition of the additional barriers of documentation status and recent migration are critical to understanding the Latino experience, especially in comparison to other groups.

Relative to other immigrant communities, it appears like Mexican immigrants have fewer civic and social service organizations. Though some argue that this difference reflects a lack of civic values and interest in politics on the part of Latinos; such perceptions increase the relative neglect of this community by local officials and policy-makers, reinforcing civic and political marginalization. This research finds that government support and mainstream outreach to immigrant communities is in fact critical in helping newcomers’ create civic organizations, and through them, building social, civic and political capital.

2008 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: 35 pages || Words: 19921 words || 
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3. Rainey, Jane. and Rainey, Jr., Glenn. "Civic Education, Civic Engagement, and Citizens' Assemblies: A Sober Second Look" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel Intercontinental, New Orleans, LA, Jan 09, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p208581_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Academicians, activists, and practitioners concerned about a "democratic deficit" have endorsed various adult-centered civic education and engagement ideas to address the problem. One generating enthusiasm recently is the citizens' assembly--a large group of citizens selected, funded, and empowered by government to learn, deliberate, and make recommendations that can trigger a binding referendum. The first Citizens' Assembly was held in British Columbia in 2004 followed by Ontario's in 2006-2007 with a referendum scheduled for October. These major undertakings have been lauded as a "higher order" form of deliberative democracy and role models for future exercises elsewhere. Indeed, a smaller-scale assembly took place in the Netherlands, assemblies have been proposed in several states, and the incoming British Prime Minister has endorsed the concept.
However, full-fledged citizens' assemblies demand a major commitment of money, time, and effort, and a comparative analysis of the BC and Ontario experiences can be instructive, offering realistic insights for those contemplating future assemblies. Based on personal observation and interactions with assembly members in the Ontario CA and extensive video and archival records of both assemblies, we propose to generate premises about cause and effect, and develop propositions concerning the impact of ideological and accommodational behavior, the role of externally imposed empowering and constraining mandates, and the apparent impacts on civic knowledge, engagement, and trust within the assemblies and the citizenry, as well as assumptions made about citizens and politics in the design and implementation of these assemblies.

2009 - International Communication Association Pages: 41 pages || Words: 11200 words || 
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4. Kyoung, Kyurim. and Pan, Zhongdang. "Civic Education for Deliberative Citizens: An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Civic Experiences in Schools" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott, Chicago, IL, May 20, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p298327_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Analyzing the data from a nationally representative sample of 9th graders, this paper examines several hypotheses developed from the premises that first, individuals’ citizenship is to be constituted through their deliberative and participatory experiences; second, with provisions of civic curricula and opportunities for extra-curricular activities, public schools are a fertile ground for adolescents to acquire such experiences, and consequently to benefit from them in their development of citizenship preparedness; and third, through political discussion with others prominently present in adolescents’ everyday life, such school experiences could be added to and/or integrated with extra-school experiences such as news media use to affect their citizenship preparedness. Via multi-level modeling with political discussion as well as civic literacy and citizenship conception as the dependent variables, this paper obtained evidence in support of the key hypotheses. The paper discussed the implications of the results, especially in terms of the research agenda for revived political socialization research in the deliberative framework.

2010 - 54th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Pages: unavailable || Words: 1226 words || 
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5. Tu, Yuxin. "A Chinese civil society in the making? Civic perceptions and civic participation of university students" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 54th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, Feb 28, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p399836_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The focus of this study is on civic perceptions and civic participation of university student in China, informed by findings from a large-scale student survey and 34 follow-up in-depth interviews. The research shows that the existing ideo-political education offered in Chinese universities is problematic in today’s globalization era. Many important elements in citizenship education failed to be addressed properly in the current curricula, leading to some students’ lack of critical thinking in citizenship. The complex global and domestic socio-political climate poses new challenges for enhancing university students’ civic perceptions and participation.

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