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2004 - International Studies Association Words: 262 words || 
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1. Kinsella, Helen. "'What is a a civilian? Who is a civilian?: An Arendtian analyses of the category and concept of the 'civilian' in international humanitarian law." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p72614_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: My effort here is to think through the development of the concept and category of the 'civilian' as codified within the 1949 IV Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilians in light of the distinction Arendt draws between a 'who' and a 'what.' I argue that the concept and category of the 'civilian' articulated in the 1949 IV Convention draws from and depends upon the demarcation of necessarily physical characteristics all civilians are said to share, weakness, dependency, and vulnerability, but which are uniquely and innately ascribed to the female sex. As a result, the civilian can be theorized as a 'what' category--a category necessarily determined by traits all members of the female sex are said to share by virtue of their reproductive and sexual capacities. Reduced to biological species-being, held captive by a biological process, the 'civilian' (and necessarily the female sex) is constructed as an exquisitely apolitical category. To return to Arendt's terms, the civilian is denied the capacity and possibility of relevatory political action which distinguishes 'who' we are from what' we are. Indeed, the juridical protection of the 'civilian' is premised upon an abstaining from participation in the hostilities,a vague and undefined sphere of politics. Informing this exploratory paper is the political and practical question: How may a sustained analyses of the 'civilian' in light of this (sexed) distinction of who and what assist us in evaluating the rights and protections afforded to civilians? Due to panel changes, this paper was not presented, please email me at Helen_Kinsella@ksg.harvard.edu for a copy

2016 - Southwestern Social Science Association 97th Annual Meeting Words: 329 words || 
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2. Yerger, David. and Vick, Brandon. "Assessing the Skill Intensity of Post-2001 Veterans’ Civilian Occupations: Revealed Skill Advantages and Implications for Transitioning to Civilian Employment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Social Science Association 97th Annual Meeting, Paris and Bally’s Hotels, Las Vegas, Nevada, Mar 23, 2016 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1110911_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This research analyzes the civilian employment occupations for 25-40 year olds across 504 occupations for non-veterans and Post-2001 veterans (p2001vets) using five-year 2009-2013 Public ACS Microdata (PUMS) and Department of Labor data (O*Net) on the importance of 35 different skills by detailed occupation. The first part of the analysis examines the distribution of employment across occupations for p2001vets as compared to non-veterans controlling for gender, age, and educational attainment. While there are differences in the occupations in which p2001vets and non-veterans are more concentrated, the overall concentration of employment across the 504 occupations shows minimal differences between non-veterans and p2001vets, suggesting p2001vets’ employment is not excessively concentrated.

The second part of this research examines the skill intensity of p2001vets’ employment using O*net data on the importance of 35 different skills by occupation. A “composite skill profile” by gender for both non-veterans and p2001vets will be created for several different educational attainment categories. By comparing non-veterans to p2001vets, differences in the composite skill values will indicate skills more strongly associated with p2001vets’ employment. A better understanding of the skills most strongly associated with p2001vets’ employment will be useful when analyzing potential civilian occupation pathways for veterans transitioning out of the military.

The final part of this research searches for occupations with similar skill profiles to popular p2001vets occupations that presently have relatively low p2001vets’ employment. Within each of the educational attainment categories, the occupations with the largest share of p2001 veterans’ employment by gender will be identified. Next, each of these occupations will be compared against the other 503 occupations in the data set using a “Skill Similarity Index” to identify those occupations most similar across the 35 skills. The share of p2001vets’ employment in these “most similar” occupations will be examined in order to identify occupations that have similar skill requirements to popular occupations for p2001vets, but currently do not have comparable levels of p2001vets’ employment. These findings will be useful for assisting veterans currently transitioning to civilian employment.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 25 pages || Words: 6621 words || 
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3. Jose-Thota, Betcy. "The Ambiguous Civilian: Challenges to the Civilian Immunity Norm" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p178810_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Why are civilians intentionally killed in armed conflict even though it is a violation of the civilian immunity norm and international humanitarian law? Many explanations start with an assumption that actors share a common understanding of what is a civilian. This paper asks whether this is in fact true through an exploration of the definition of civilian used by humanitarian practitioners and former combatants.

2009 - The Law and Society Association Words: 104 words || 
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4. Grosso, Catherine. and Baldus, David. "Military Murder versus Civilian Murder: The Impact of Civilian Aggravators on Military Death Sentencing, 1984-2005" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Grand Hyatt, Denver, Colorado, May 25, 2009 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p303789_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper is part of a larger study on the military capital punishment system. The code governing the military death penalty system mirrors the code of a typical civilian death sentencing system. Yet, despite the language of the military death sentencing statute and rules, after 1990 a person accused of a murder that implicates military discipline and control faces significantly more punitive outcomes at each step of charging and sentencing than a similarly situated person accused of committing a conventional civilian murder. The paper explores the equal justice implications of this finding as well as implications for the rule of law.

2013 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 138 words || 
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5. Lentz, Ted. "Trends of Civilians in Police Departments: Factors Promoting Heavier Reliance on Civilians in Police Investigations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Nov 14, 2013 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p665401_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The use of civilians working for police departments is a phenomenon that has not always characterized police functions in the past. In the United States prior to the 1960s, sworn officers almost exclusively performed police work. However, current trends promote the use of civilians in supplementing traditional police methods, especially for skilled jobs such as crime analysis, crime mapping, and forensic investigation.
This essay examines this process and investigates a number of elements, which permitted, assisted, and encouraged the use of civilians in police departments. Among these factors include fiscal necessities, advancements in technology (especially the use of computers), the social process of collective behavior, and the evolution of policing since the beginning of the 20th century. The essay also reviews current police administration policies associated with civilianization and briefly evaluates the use of civilians for improving policing.

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