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2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 738 words || 
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1. El Zorkani, Ahmed. "Teaching beyond classroom walls: an intervention study of classroom action research on applying the flipped classroom model" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-04-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p976403_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Teaching Beyond Classroom Walls: An Intervention Study of Classroom Action Research on Applying the Flipped Classroom Model

Ahmad A. Zorkani

Graduate School of Education
International & Comparative Education Masters (Fall 2014)
The American University in Cairo

Manager, Multimedia Services
Center for Learning & Teaching
The American University in Cairo

Ahmad.zorkani@aucegypt.edu
00201207880338




Students spend considerably more of their studying time in their homes and/or at different other locations, such as the library, than the time they spend face-to-face with their instructors in a classroom. Thus, this limited classroom time is precious and needs to be utilized to the maximum benefit of the learners.
Traditional teaching methods that utilize one-way lecturing of theoretical parts of the syllabus inside the classroom, use-up this valuable and limited classroom time, leaving little time for interactive activities and active learning to take place. In addition, those lectures become something in the past of the learner, having already happened, and learners will never re-live them again. Furthermore, good note takers could have been able to take notes, while slow ones, or absent ones, may not have such good notes.
Instead, flipping the classroom can be utilized to free most of the face-to-face time. The model is that the conceptual and theoretical parts of the content, which used to be lectured in the classroom, get delivered as online videos, interactive online modules, or even as readings. Students view these online deliverables at their homes before going to class. Enabling them to view them at their own pace, take notes at their leisure, and have the luxury of reviewing them repeatedly when needed. Then the practical aspects of the content, that used to be homework, are carried out inside the classroom. Class time can then be used to carry out active, collaborative, and cooperative learning (Tucker, 2012). Transforming the instructor to a guide, a facilitator, and a mentor for active learning in the classroom, rather than a lecturer. Utilizing student-centered instructional strategies such as cooperative learning, inquiry-based learning, and peer instruction to allow the learners a greater level of independence. This would motivate the learners and enhance their twenty first century skills such as creativity, critical thinking, communication and collaboration, as well as life skills like being flexible and adaptable to change (PMIEF, 2014). This allows for emphasis to be put on complex problems and advanced concepts, while the instructor guides and scaffolds the learners.
So the intended definition of flipping the classroom, for the purposes of this research, is exchanging the one way instructor-to-students lecturing from happening during face-to-face class time to being carried out at home using various mediums of delivery, while using the released face-to-face class time to carry out the aforementioned active learning activities.
This research will attempt to provide evidence that flipping the classroom at the School of Sciences and Engineering, and the Professional Educator Diploma program at the Graduate School of Education has the potential to enhance the quality of teaching.


Methodology
This research will rely on action research as the methodology and different data sources such as class observations, semi-structured student and faculty interviews, and repeated random sampled student focus groups as well as participatory action research to gather, analyze and triangulate the data.
This research targets faculty members teaching undergraduate students at the American University in Cairo’s School of Sciences and Engineering. In addition to graduate students at GSE’s Professional Educators Diploma during fall 2014.
Recent lecture capture technologies, and other online delivery tools, will be used to help faculty members pre-record their lectures. Faculty members will be provided with advice and scaffolding on the implementation of student-centered instructional techniques during the face-to-face time. These techniques include, cooperative learning, experiential learning, scaffolding, peer instructions, assessment and feedback.
This research is my Masters of International & Comparative Education thesis (Fall 2014), and seeks to test the extent to which implementing the Flipped Classroom Model can enhance teaching quality at The School of Sciences and Engineering at AUC, as well as the PED program at GSE. It is expected that, once the program success has been proven, it may be recommended to other Sciences faculty members, and the AUC community at large. Then publicizing it, at CIES2015 for example, will hopefully get more faculty members to adopt it; enhancing teaching and learning.


References
Project Management Institute Educational Foundation. (2014, March). 21st century skills map - project management for learning. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/SkillsMap/Project_Management_Skills_Map_Final.pdf
Tucker, B. (2012). The flipped classroom: online instruction at home frees class time for learning. Education Next, 12(1), 82+.

2013 - 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 92 words || 
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2. Bruns, Barbara. "Inside the Classroom in Latin America and the Caribbean: Results of Classroom Observation Research in 7 Countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Hilton Riverside Hotel, New Orleans, LA, <Not Available>. 2018-04-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p659385_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: The presentation will highlight the principal findings from research carried out in seven LAC countries between 2009 and 2012 on teacher classroom practice using the "Stallings Classroom Snapshot" Instrument. The results to date reveal that differences in teacher effectiveness at the classroom level in LAC – both across and within schools -- are large and have important consequences for student learning. It has established that a significant part of what makes some teachers better than others can be detected simply by taking the time to observe them at work in the classroom.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 498 words || 
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3. Cameron, Claire., Kim, Helyn., Mashburn, Andrew., Adams, Cara., West, Hall. and Grissmer, David. "Classroom Conditions to Consider when Testing the Impacts of an After-School SEL Program on Kindergarteners’ Classroom Engagement" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2018-04-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p962078_index.html>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: Observed children’s engagement with peers, teachers, and tasks in classroom settings provide key information about their socio-emotional (SEL) skills (Cameron Ponitz & Rimm-Kaufman, 2011; Connor, et al., 2009). Increasingly, children’s classroom engagement is being targeted as a proximal outcome of social-emotional learning interventions, as was the case in a recent randomized controlled evaluation of the WINGS After-School Program for at-risk kindergartners. WINGS is a 15-hour per week after-school curriculum that seeks to teach young students how to make good decisions and build healthy relationships. In the present study, we (A) examined the extent to which children’s engagement can be explained by classroom conditions that co-occurred during observations of kindergartners (e.g., type of activity); and then (B) tested whether impacts of participation in WINGS on observed engagement emerged under different learning settings.

Method. Data come from a large-scale experimental study testing the efficacy of WINGS on children’s relationships, interactions, social, and academic skills. Observations were conducted with two cohorts of kindergartners (N = 202) in three high-poverty schools. Children were randomly assigned to WINGS (n = 116) or a control (n = 86) group. Condition-blind observers assigned ratings to children’s daytime classroom behaviors in the spring of kindergarten using the Individualized Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS; Downer, Booren, Lima, Luckner, & Pianta, 2011). Each child was observed 8 times (10-minute cycles) over two consecutive days. Ratings on a 7-pt. scale (higher scores reflecting more positive engagement) were assigned along 10 dimensions of engagement with teachers, peers, and learning tasks.

Results. Preliminary analyses reported herein focus on three inCLASS dimensions—peer sociability, task engagement, and behavior control. Using multi-level modeling, inCLASS scores were nested within three levels: 1) Cycle, 2) Child, and 3) Classroom.
(A) Intra-class Correlations (ICC) estimates revealed 67-86% of the variance at the cycle level, from 3-12% at the child level, and from 7-21% of the variance at the classroom level (Table 1A). Next, we included predictors of cycle-level variance (e.g., day of week, time of day). Results indicate that 17% of the variation in peer sociability could be explained with cycle-level predictors; whereas only 3% in task engagement and 7% in behavior control could be explained with cycle-level predictors (Table 1B). Negligible amounts of variance were explained by predictors at the child and classroom level.
(B) There were no main effects of WINGS condition on children’s observed engagement. However, modest impacts emerged through an interaction: compared to participants in the control group, WINGS-assigned children demonstrated higher task engagement during individual activities (ES = 0.38; see Table 2). This explained an additional 1% of the variance in overall task engagement.

Discussion. This study examined kindergarteners’ observed behaviors in the context of an RCT evaluation of an after-school program. Results reveal particular learning settings in which variability occurs in children’s engagement and point to where systematic differences in this engagement have the potential to emerge. The study raises some challenges for using situational measures in RCTs; e.g., cycle-level differences that outweigh child-level differences. Implications for program evaluators will be discussed.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 491 words || 
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4. Begert, Thomas., Müller, Christoph. and Bless, Gérard. "The association between social classroom cohesion and disruptive classroom behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-04-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p958066_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Background

Teachers are often burdened by frequent, mild forms of disruptive classroom behaviors (e.g., talking out of turn; Beaman et al., 2007). Earlier studies have often focused on individual dispositions or on teachers’ classroom management skills as the causes of such behavior (Nolting, 2002); however, social interaction between peers also plays an important role in behavioral development. One central mechanism of peer influence, group pressure, is more likely to arise in groups with high social cohesion (Cartwright, 1968). Cohesion in this study was defined as the extent of mutual interaction preferences within the group (Shaw, 1981).
Research showed that high group cohesion can contribute to positive behaviors (e.g. performance; Forsyth, 2006). The norms prevailing in a group - regulative behavioral standards expected by group members - may provide an explanation for this relationship: Often, a high cohesion is related to more pronounced positive group norms (Coleman & Caron, 2001; Kim, 1992). Group norms, in turn, are foundational in forming individual behavior (Hackman, 1976). Hence, we expected that students in more cohesive classrooms exhibit lower levels of disruptive behavior. Classroom norms regarding disruptive behavior were supposed to mediate this relationship.

Hypotheses
(1) High levels of class cohesion contribute to lower levels of individual disruptive classroom behavior. (2) The effect of cohesion is mediated by the prevailing classroom norms.

Method
A total of 839 students from 55 classes of the 7th grade were asked to self-report disruptive classroom behavior. The social relations were collected using peer nominations regarding the frequency of interaction. Clustering coefficients were used to determine cohesion (Borgatti et al., 2013). These coefficients represented the proportion of closed interaction triangles (e.g. my friend’s friend is also my friend) divided by the sum of all interaction triplets (closed or open) of students in a class. The descriptive classroom norm was defined as the mean of disruptive behavior over all class members. Social network analysis and multi-level modeling, controlling for various social characteristics of the classrooms (e.g. class size), were performed.

Results
The hypothesis that high class cohesion is associated with lower levels of problem behavior was supported (B = -0.14; R2 = .03; p < .01). The effect of cohesion on disruptive behavior was completely mediated by the descriptive classroom norms. Mediation analyses showed that a high class cohesion was predictive of less deviant norms (B = -0.11; R2 = .26; p < .01). More deviant classroom norms in turn were predictive of more disruptive individual behavior (B = 0.48; R2 = 0.12; p < .000). Finally, deviant classroom norms eliminated the significant effect of cohesion. According to the Sobel-test, the indirect effect was significant (p < .05).

Discussion
A higher class cohesion was associated with less disruptive classroom behavior by individual students. Extending earlier research, the mediating effect of classroom norms could be used to describe the mechanism of this relationship in a more nuanced way. These findings show that, besides e.g. student characteristics and teachers’ competencies, the social classroom networks may provide additional explanations for school problem behavior.

2016 - PMENA-38 Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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5. Ghousseini, Hala., Lord, Sarah. and Cardon, Aimee. "CLASSROOM MATHEMATICS DISCOURSE IN A KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOM" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the PMENA-38, JW Marriott Starr Pass Resort, Tucson, AZ, Nov 03, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/VND.OPENXMLFORMATS-OFFICEDOCUMENT.WORDPROCESSINGML.DOCUMENT>. 2018-04-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1131908_index.html>
Publication Type: Brief Research Report
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study provides an analysis of classroom discourse at the kindergarten level. We illustrate how young learners can participate in mathematics discourse and how the teacher can support their engagement. The teacher in our study played a crucial role in supporting students’ talk through practices that promoted collaboration around important mathematical ideas, attention to mathematical language, and the provision of resources that allowed students to communicate about their reasoning with others.

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