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2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 738 words || 
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1. El Zorkani, Ahmed. "Teaching beyond classroom walls: an intervention study of classroom action research on applying the flipped classroom model" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p976403_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Teaching Beyond Classroom Walls: An Intervention Study of Classroom Action Research on Applying the Flipped Classroom Model

Ahmad A. Zorkani

Graduate School of Education
International & Comparative Education Masters (Fall 2014)
The American University in Cairo

Manager, Multimedia Services
Center for Learning & Teaching
The American University in Cairo

Ahmad.zorkani@aucegypt.edu
00201207880338




Students spend considerably more of their studying time in their homes and/or at different other locations, such as the library, than the time they spend face-to-face with their instructors in a classroom. Thus, this limited classroom time is precious and needs to be utilized to the maximum benefit of the learners.
Traditional teaching methods that utilize one-way lecturing of theoretical parts of the syllabus inside the classroom, use-up this valuable and limited classroom time, leaving little time for interactive activities and active learning to take place. In addition, those lectures become something in the past of the learner, having already happened, and learners will never re-live them again. Furthermore, good note takers could have been able to take notes, while slow ones, or absent ones, may not have such good notes.
Instead, flipping the classroom can be utilized to free most of the face-to-face time. The model is that the conceptual and theoretical parts of the content, which used to be lectured in the classroom, get delivered as online videos, interactive online modules, or even as readings. Students view these online deliverables at their homes before going to class. Enabling them to view them at their own pace, take notes at their leisure, and have the luxury of reviewing them repeatedly when needed. Then the practical aspects of the content, that used to be homework, are carried out inside the classroom. Class time can then be used to carry out active, collaborative, and cooperative learning (Tucker, 2012). Transforming the instructor to a guide, a facilitator, and a mentor for active learning in the classroom, rather than a lecturer. Utilizing student-centered instructional strategies such as cooperative learning, inquiry-based learning, and peer instruction to allow the learners a greater level of independence. This would motivate the learners and enhance their twenty first century skills such as creativity, critical thinking, communication and collaboration, as well as life skills like being flexible and adaptable to change (PMIEF, 2014). This allows for emphasis to be put on complex problems and advanced concepts, while the instructor guides and scaffolds the learners.
So the intended definition of flipping the classroom, for the purposes of this research, is exchanging the one way instructor-to-students lecturing from happening during face-to-face class time to being carried out at home using various mediums of delivery, while using the released face-to-face class time to carry out the aforementioned active learning activities.
This research will attempt to provide evidence that flipping the classroom at the School of Sciences and Engineering, and the Professional Educator Diploma program at the Graduate School of Education has the potential to enhance the quality of teaching.


Methodology
This research will rely on action research as the methodology and different data sources such as class observations, semi-structured student and faculty interviews, and repeated random sampled student focus groups as well as participatory action research to gather, analyze and triangulate the data.
This research targets faculty members teaching undergraduate students at the American University in Cairo’s School of Sciences and Engineering. In addition to graduate students at GSE’s Professional Educators Diploma during fall 2014.
Recent lecture capture technologies, and other online delivery tools, will be used to help faculty members pre-record their lectures. Faculty members will be provided with advice and scaffolding on the implementation of student-centered instructional techniques during the face-to-face time. These techniques include, cooperative learning, experiential learning, scaffolding, peer instructions, assessment and feedback.
This research is my Masters of International & Comparative Education thesis (Fall 2014), and seeks to test the extent to which implementing the Flipped Classroom Model can enhance teaching quality at The School of Sciences and Engineering at AUC, as well as the PED program at GSE. It is expected that, once the program success has been proven, it may be recommended to other Sciences faculty members, and the AUC community at large. Then publicizing it, at CIES2015 for example, will hopefully get more faculty members to adopt it; enhancing teaching and learning.


References
Project Management Institute Educational Foundation. (2014, March). 21st century skills map - project management for learning. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/SkillsMap/Project_Management_Skills_Map_Final.pdf
Tucker, B. (2012). The flipped classroom: online instruction at home frees class time for learning. Education Next, 12(1), 82+.

2013 - LRA 63rd Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 2606 words || 
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2. Sanden, Sherry. "Literacy Instruction in Theory and in Practice: Discrepancies between the University Classroom and the Primary Classroom" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the LRA 63rd Annual Conference, Omni Dallas Hotel, Dallas, Texas, Dec 04, 2013 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p663098_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2013 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 5097 words || 
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3. Huang, I-Ting. and Hsu, Chai-Fang. "Are International Students Quiet in Class? The Influence of Teacher Confirmation and Classroom Connectedness on Classroom Apprehension and Willingness to Talk Among International Students" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, Jun 17, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p636397_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study investigated how teacher confirmation and classroom connectedness influenced classroom apprehension and willingness to talk in class among international students at a western university in the United States. The participants (N=121) completed an online questionnaire, including the scales on teacher confirmation, classroom connectedness, self-perceived English competence, classroom communication apprehension, and willingness to talk in class. Results indicated that regardless of self-perceived English competence, length of stay, class size and class type, both teachers’ confirmation behaviors and classroom connectedness reduced international students’ classroom apprehension and increased their willingness to talk in class. In addition, classroom connectedness influenced willingness to talk in class directly, and indirectly through classroom apprehension. Implications of these findings were further discussed.

2013 - ATE Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 1248 words || 
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4. Sanden, Sherry. "Literacy Instruction in Theory and in Practice: Discrepancies between the University Classroom and the Primary Classroom" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ATE Annual Meeting, Hyatt Regency Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, Feb 15, 2013 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p600670_index.html>
Publication Type: Roundtable Format
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This presentation explores how pre-service and in-service teachers perceive and negotiate discrepancies between literacy methods privileged in my university course and literacy practices enacted in the field-based setting.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 117 words || 
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5. Tal, Lea., Dolev, Smadar. and Sher-Censor, Efrat. "Teachers' representations regarding their classroom: Associations with classroom environment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p951315_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A supportive classroom environment in early childhood promotes children’s well-being and school success (e.g., Hamre & Pianta, 2005). It is therefore imperative to identify processes that underlie a positive classroom environment. Studies suggest that teachers’ representations (i.e., perceptions, feelings, and expectations) of specific students in their classroom relate to the quality of their dyadic relationship (e.g., Stuhlman & Pianta, 2001). The current study extended this prior research and examined if and how teachers’ representations of their classroom as a whole, are related to the classroom environment.
A novel aspect of this study was the employment of a narrative approach to assess teachers’ representations. Theorists and researchers from various perspectives emphasize that narratives regarding close relationships reflect the narrator’s representations and are closely related to the quality of the relationships (Caspi et al., 2004; Oppenheim, 2006). In particular, the affective valance of the narrative and the extent to which it is multifaceted are presumably central indicators of the nature of the narrator’s representations (Slade et al., 1999). In accordance, we hypothesized that classroom climate would be more positive in classrooms where teachers’ narratives are positive and multidimensional.
Forty public kindergartens serving low-income families participated in the study. Trained observers evaluated the classroom environment of each kindergarten in terms of the classroom's emotional support, instructional support, and organization, using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS K-3; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008; average inter-rater agreement [±1] = 92%). To assess their representations, teachers provided five minutes of uninterrupted speech samples (FMSS; Gottschalk & Glesser, 1969), responding to the prompt, “What it is like for you to be the teacher of this classroom, and how do these experiences influence you?” FMSS's were transcribed and coded by independent raters using a negative affective valance scale (ICC = .947), and a multidimensionality scale, which assessed the extent to which the teacher addressed social, emotional, organizational, and instructional aspects of the classroom (ICC = .972). Because teachers’ well-being could influence their classrooms’ climates and their narratives, teachers completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1975) and the Teachers Burnout profile (Fridman, 1999). The scores of these self-reports were highly correlated and therefore aggregated for the study analyses. Finally, teachers reported the classroom characteristics (i.e., number of children, number of teacher assistants, teachers’ education level and years of experience), of which only the number of teacher assistants was related to the study variables and included in further analyses.
As shown in Table 1, controlling for the number of teacher assistants and teacher well-being, higher FMSS multidimensionality was associated with better classroom emotional support and better classroom instructional support, whereas a more negative valance of teachers’ FMSS was associated with poorer classroom organization.
In summary, this study suggests that kindergarten teachers who show in their narratives less negative affect and provide a multifaceted picture of their work, lead kindergartens with better emotional, organizational, and instructional climate. Thus, our study points to the importance of assessing teachers’ narrative representations for understanding classroom climate.

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