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2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 56 pages || Words: 18099 words || 
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1. Munoz, Vincent. "Rethinking the Original Meaning of the Establishment Clause" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p61852_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper considers the three leading “originalist” constructions of the Establishment Clause: “strict-separationism,” “non-preferentialism,” and federalism. It reviews the Supreme Court’s attempts to apply the Framers’ intentions in leading Establishment Clause cases. Finding fault with these efforts, the article attempts to ascertain the original meaning of the Establishment Clause by interpreting it in light of the historical and political context in which it emerged. That effort reveals that the First Federal Congress intended primarily to address fears that emerged from ratification politics, and not to constitutionalize one proper relationship between church and state. Those who drafted the Establishment Clause meant neither to erect a “wall of separation” nor to allow federal “non-preferential” aid to religion. The Framers sought, rather, to codify the Constitution’s federal arrangement that denied the national government jurisdiction regarding religious establishments and, thereby, to safeguard State sovereignty over such matters. The essay has potentially sweeping implications for contemporary jurisprudence. It reveals that “non-preferentialist” and “strict-separationist” approaches to church-state matters fail to live up to their claims by misinterpreting the original meaning of the Establishment Clause. It identifies federalism as the most accurate interpretation of the Establishment Clause’s original meaning.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 46 pages || Words: 15447 words || 
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2. Blakeman, John. "Establishment Clause Federalism and the Structures and Constituencies of Religious Liberty" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p210552_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In several recent Supreme Court cases Justice Clarence Thomas has sought to link his interpretation of church-state relations to the Court’s states’ rights interpretation of federalism. Briefly, Justice Thomas argues that the 1st amendment Establishment Clause should be interpreted as a federalism provision that allows states and local communities to determine how religion and politics interact at the subnational level.

Justice Thomas’s argument is not new, however, and has been articulated by many constitutional scholars over the past 30 years. In this paper I detail the intellectual development of this argument and show how Justice Thomas’s view of religious liberty is an extension of the high court’s decade-long focus on federalism in general. Using current federalism scholarship that focuses on the structure and constituencies of American federalism, I assess “establishment clause federalism” in the context of the structure and constituencies of religious liberty in the United States. Using interest group litigation strategies, public opinion polls, and national and subnational responses to religious liberty issues, I argue that the main constituents of religious liberty doctrine tend to use and prefer federal courts, congress, and federal agencies to resolve disputes over religious liberty instead of local and state institutions. Thus, I argue that establishment clause federalism has no supporting constituency outside of the Supreme Court and a select group of legal scholars, and is unlikely to cause a significant shift in church-state relations.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 8398 words || 
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3. Fox, Jonathan. "Constitutional Religion Clauses and State Religion Policy: Are the Two Correlated?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p210527_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study examines whether states follow the constitution clauses on their religion in 149 states. Specifically it measures the presence of (1) separation of religion and state clauses (2) clauses banning religious discrimination or protecting religious freedom and (3) clauses banning discrimination on the basis of religion or protecting equality regardless of religion. The presence of these clauses is tested against the extent to which states engage in religious discrimination and religious legislation based on variables from the Religion and State (RAS) dataset. The results show a limited impact of constitutional clauses on government behavior. Religious freedom clauses are associated with lower levels of religious discrimination in the bivariate analysis but this result does not hold up in the multi-variate analysis and most states with such clauses engage in at least some religious discrimination. States with constitutional separation of religion and state clauses engage in less religious legislation but the vast majority of them engage in at least some religious legislation. This result is consistent in both the bivariate and multi-variate analyses. Clauses banning discrimination on the basis of religion or protecting equality regardless of religion have no impact on religious discrimination.

2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 9 pages || Words: 5140 words || 
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4. Stevenson, David. "Britain, France, and the Origins of the Versailles Disarmament Clauses, 1914-1919" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p73844_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper will focus on the policy processes and inter-allied negotiations that led to the Treaty of Versailles limitations on German armaments. It will compare British and French approaches to the issue, and consider both naval and land disarmament, including fortifications as well as mobile forces. It will provide a longer-term context for the later papers by referring to pre-1914 precedents for the inter-war disarmament debate. It will relate policy differences towards Germany to concerns about the future balance of strength between the victors themselves.

2006 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 32 words || 
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5. Fleming, Eleanor. "A Black Feminist Account of the Equal Protection Clause" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p138586_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Faced with racial, gender, and class oppression, Black feminist theorist-activists challenge the principle of nondiscrimination and recast the Equal Protection Clause with a combined understanding of equal citizenship and equal political agency.

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