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2011 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 6029 words || 
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1. Renzulli, Linda., Paino, Maria. and Bradley, Christen. "The Process of Closure: A Multi-Level Examination of Charter School Closure in North Carolina" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, Aug 19, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p508234_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Abstract In the last two decades, the introduction of charter schools into the public school system has changed the way that the American educational system is organized. In general, charter schools are often considered an innovation to the traditional system in part because this type of school can be closed if it fails to meet objectives set forth by the chartering body that approved it. Thus far, however, little research has been done into the causes of charter school closures. In this paper, we utilize ecological theory to guide our macro-level analysis of environmental influences that effect charter school closures in North Carolina. In addition, we present two case studies of schools that closed in North Carolina to better illustrate the differing micro-level processes that can lead to the closure of a school. We find that the organizational environment does in fact influence the likelihood that a school will close, and that closures are often not the result of academic issues within the school, as a market model of accountability would suggest.

2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 3863 words || 
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2. Mercier, Christiana. "Conflicting Clocks: Comparing Temporality in Closure for Victims and Closure of Criminal Justice Cases" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p724881_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The homicidally bereaved, or those who have lost loved ones to murder, are suddenly thrust into close interaction and dependence on the criminal justice system. A murder brings to bear the full weight of the justice system. The goals and motives of institutional justice may not serve the needs of the bereaved thereby complicating and exacerbating the mourning process. This paper will examine how narratives and milestones differ between the bereaved and the criminal justice system. This qualitative study will scrutinize the experiential time frames of each group and procedural tempos as well as the pace of the grief process itself to determine if closure becomes more or less attainable through interaction with the justice system.

2007 - American Sociological Association Pages: 23 pages || Words: 5429 words || 
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3. Ryu, Kirak. "Social Closure and Gender Gaps in Earnings: Multi-level Analyses of Census 2000" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, TBA, New York, New York City, Aug 11, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p183101_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper elaborates social closure mechanisms that restrict access to remunerative occupations and investigates how gender inequality in rewards is conditioned by those closure devices using census 2000 data and other secondary sources. Hypotheses are tested to see whether social closure devices, based on group membership and on opportunities for occupation specific skills trainings, work in a gender specific manner or not. Hierarchical linear models regressing gender gaps in earnings on social closure variables are estimated with controls for an array of occupational characteristics and individual-level human capital. Findings suggest that, contrary to the hypotheses, educational credentialing and unionization work to the advantage of female employees while skills training dimension of social closure has no significant effects. However caution is advised as there is no data that allow for separating the “rent generating” effects of closure devices from the “gatekeeping” effects for the subordinate groups. Further research is recommended to explore relevant data and develop models to address these sophisticated questions.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 36 pages || Words: 15881 words || 
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4. Werner, Wouter. "The Never Ending Closure: Constitutionalism and International Law" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p100032_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper understands international constitutionalism as a project that is situated in between positive law and the ideal legal system. International constitutionalism offers an explanation of some developments in international law, based on the existence of a constitution that is valid for the entire international community. At the same time, it aims to bring about what is describes: the existence of a hierarchically structured international legal order that unifies the international community and regulates the exercise of political power. International constitutionalism has much to offer: it draws attention to new developments in international law and expresses faith in the critical potential of the ideals set out in the Charter and in human rights documents. However, one should not put one’s hopes too high. International constitutionalism has not been able to shake off of tensions, paradoxes and limitations of domestic constitutionalism: the foundational paradox, the tension between politics and society, the need to unify and limit politics and the limited possibilities to contain politics or to create society after a constitutional image. The limitations of constitutionalism can be regarded as, in the words of Anne Orford, “..a reminder of that which cannot be enclosed, of that which escapes the law, of the unknown… (of) the impossibility of ever finally securing the grounds of law”. (Orford 2004, 195)

2006 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 21 words || 
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5. Peterson, Geoff. "Public Opinion and Legal Closure: The Politics of Law and Order" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p137056_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper examines the connection between public opinion on high profile legal cases and how those cases are "re-created" on television.

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