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2009 - 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions Words: 341 words || 
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1. Buswell, Evan. "Truth and Command in the Language of Code: (code := meaning) == (code := action)?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Crystal City, VA, <Not Available>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p374155_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: In our globalized world, computers have become an essential component in systems of control. They were developed with warfare in mind, later formed one of the pillars of the military architecture framework, C4ISTAR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Reconnaissance), and now are brought to the foreground with Network-Centric Warfare. In the civil sphere, the media has been teeming with stories of computer surveillance—from Facebook terms of use, to the FBI’s “Carnivore” service-provider dragnet. In short, we have heard to what extent code is capable of control—but how receives little attention. Code is most often presented as a reified object, a static technological artifact that is, in itself, neutral. This neutrality prevents us from analyzing the politics of code itself, and encourages the perception of the internet as essentially a free place, only accidentally about control. I offer a model of code based on linguistic and semiotic theory that concentrates on how code gains its status as code, and explains its aspect of control.

As I argue, every utterance of code must simultaneously be correct, i.e. have a truth value, and act in the world, i.e. command. Code acquires its code-like character only through the superposition of two modes of meaning: the declarative and the imperative. But these two modes can only be fused together by the construction of a unitary subject that enacts that imperative. That is, the imperative and declarative only cohere together when the effect of the imperative is always and everywhere the same, when command becomes control. Even in the case of information—rather than executable code—an actor, an imperative, is required. Information only becomes information when it is referred to systems of control. However, because of the dual nature of code as declarative and imperative, information is able to hide its aspect of control. One half of this equation covers the other, and systems of control appear, in the guise of information, as systems of apolitical facts.

2017 - AEJMC Pages: unavailable || Words: 7668 words || 
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2. Weber, Matthew., Kosterich, Allie. and Tikyani, Rohit. "Coding the News: The Role of Computer Code in the Distribution of News Media" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AEJMC, Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile, Chicago, IL, Aug 09, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1281621_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This article examines the role of code in the process of news distribution, and interrogates the degree to which code and algorithms are imbued with the ability to make decisions regarding the filtering and prioritizing of news, much as an editor would. Emphasis is placed specifically on the context of mobile news applications that filter news for consumers. In addressing calls to attend to the intersection of computer science and journalism, an additional goal of this article is to move the analytic lens away from the notion that code is replacing humans as producers of news and to shift towards an understanding of how code orders and communicates the news. Thus, the focus of this research is on algorithms as technological actants, filtering news based on decisions imbued into the code by human actors. An investigation of code contained in 64 open source mobile news apps is presented and the content of the code is analyzed. Findings highlight the journalistic decisions made in code and contribute to discussion surrounding the relationship between algorithmic and traditional news values.

2017 - Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology Words: 204 words || 
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3. Rabini, Christian. and Brummer, Klaus. "The Challenge of Translating Coding Schemes of Leadership Trait and Operational Code Analysis into German" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology, The Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, U.K., Jun 29, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1241449_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Individuals matter in International Relations. Angela Merkel’s assertion that “Wir schaffen das” (We can do this) at the height of the European refugee crisis and her decision to let hundreds of thousands of asylum seekers into Germany were only the latest proofs of that claim. Notwithstanding her obvious influence on both domestic and international politics as well as the ready availability of instruments to assess leadership styles and beliefs at a distance, an automated analysis of the chancellor’s leadership traits and her operational code has so far been limited to her utterances available in English. In order to broaden research opportunities, this project aims to translate coding schemes of the Leadership Trait Analysis as well as the Operational Code Analysis (a leader’s philosophical and instrumental beliefs) into German. This paper first presents a systematic procedure of creating German coding schemes; it then summarizes linguistic challenges of converting the English coding schemes into valid German ones and discusses the pros and cons of the method at use and the limitations of German coding schemes. Finally, as a touchstone for the German schemes, the paper presents first empirical results of the chancellor’s leadership traits and operational code beliefs as evidenced during the refugee crisis of 2015-16.

2008 - International Communication Association Pages: 31 pages || Words: 7484 words || 
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4. Shaffer, Gwen. "Code Blue: A Proposed Code of Conduct for Bloggers in the Context of Media Self-Regulation and a Civil Society" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 21, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p229978_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: When two high-profile Web content designers proposed a code of conduct for bloggers in April 2007, the idea triggered a heated debate in cyberspace. Many bloggers immediately criticized the proposed code, charging that it contradicted the principles of free speech that make blogs ideal forums for open and intense discussions. Supporters of enforcing standards of behavior, however, argued rules are necessary in order for blogs to serve an equally important function—that of providing a virtual public sphere, or a ‘civil society’. This paper takes a theoretically grounded approach to examining precedents that both support and undermine calls for regulating blog content. Historically, the U.S. government has taken a hands-off approach to policing media content. In addition, Web users have taken advantage of the Internet’s open architecture to establish their own system of regulating one another. This paper proposes that site moderators establish clear guidelines for the rules of engagement on their individual blogs. This may mean barring profanity and physical threats—and deleting such comments when they appear. Bloggers who choose to author such comments, regardless of the policy, will have scant room to complain about the consequences. Another tenet of all blog policies should be inclusivity. Moderators should treat divergent viewpoints with equal respect. History demonstrates that civility triumphs when members of a blogging community feel included.

2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 138 words || 
Info
5. Urbanik, Marta-Marika. and Haggerty, Kevin. "Code of the Streets?: The Movement of the Street Code onto Social Media Platforms and Implications for Street Dynamics" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1277797_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: As the digital divide has narrowed, the internet — and social media — have become accessible to more disadvantaged populations, including drug dealers, gang members, and other street-involved individuals. As members of these groups increasingly use social media, their visibility is enhanced, something that can exacerbate a range of serious dangers. Based upon qualitative research focused on street-involved men living in Canada’s oldest and largest social housing complex - Regent Park - our presentation explores how in using social media these men reproduce and reinforce many of the dangers of life on the urban streets, while they also develop strategies to manage those risks. In the process, the street code goes virtual, dis-embedded from its originating physical location, it circulates on new media platforms, and occasionally becomes re-embedded onto those same streets, but with different inflections and implications.

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