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2009 - 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions Words: 341 words || 
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1. Buswell, Evan. "Truth and Command in the Language of Code: (code := meaning) == (code := action)?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Crystal City, VA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p374155_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: In our globalized world, computers have become an essential component in systems of control. They were developed with warfare in mind, later formed one of the pillars of the military architecture framework, C4ISTAR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Reconnaissance), and now are brought to the foreground with Network-Centric Warfare. In the civil sphere, the media has been teeming with stories of computer surveillance—from Facebook terms of use, to the FBI’s “Carnivore” service-provider dragnet. In short, we have heard to what extent code is capable of control—but how receives little attention. Code is most often presented as a reified object, a static technological artifact that is, in itself, neutral. This neutrality prevents us from analyzing the politics of code itself, and encourages the perception of the internet as essentially a free place, only accidentally about control. I offer a model of code based on linguistic and semiotic theory that concentrates on how code gains its status as code, and explains its aspect of control.

As I argue, every utterance of code must simultaneously be correct, i.e. have a truth value, and act in the world, i.e. command. Code acquires its code-like character only through the superposition of two modes of meaning: the declarative and the imperative. But these two modes can only be fused together by the construction of a unitary subject that enacts that imperative. That is, the imperative and declarative only cohere together when the effect of the imperative is always and everywhere the same, when command becomes control. Even in the case of information—rather than executable code—an actor, an imperative, is required. Information only becomes information when it is referred to systems of control. However, because of the dual nature of code as declarative and imperative, information is able to hide its aspect of control. One half of this equation covers the other, and systems of control appear, in the guise of information, as systems of apolitical facts.

2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 138 words || 
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2. Urbanik, Marta-Marika. and Haggerty, Kevin. "Code of the Streets?: The Movement of the Street Code onto Social Media Platforms and Implications for Street Dynamics" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1277797_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: As the digital divide has narrowed, the internet — and social media — have become accessible to more disadvantaged populations, including drug dealers, gang members, and other street-involved individuals. As members of these groups increasingly use social media, their visibility is enhanced, something that can exacerbate a range of serious dangers. Based upon qualitative research focused on street-involved men living in Canada’s oldest and largest social housing complex - Regent Park - our presentation explores how in using social media these men reproduce and reinforce many of the dangers of life on the urban streets, while they also develop strategies to manage those risks. In the process, the street code goes virtual, dis-embedded from its originating physical location, it circulates on new media platforms, and occasionally becomes re-embedded onto those same streets, but with different inflections and implications.

2009 - The Law and Society Association Pages: 10 pages || Words: 4954 words || 
Info
3. Sakano, Issei. "Japan's Experience in Supporting Legislation of Civil Code and Code of Civil Procedure of Cambodia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Grand Hyatt, Denver, Colorado, May 25, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p303449_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Cambodia has recently promulgated the Civil Code and the Code of Civil Procedure for the first time in 30 years. Drafting works of two Codes was made by Cambodian Ministry of Justice with the assistance from Japan amid circumstances under which various ministries were drafting laws related to specific issues without paying much attention on provisions of the draft Codes. As a result, Drafting team of the Codes had to spend a considerable amount of time in identifying potential inconsistency between the Codes and other laws, such as Land Law, Secured Transactions Law, Law on Financial Leasing, Law on Commercial Court etc. In this report, a number of examples will be provided to show how problems of inconsistency were settled (or not settled) and to find out a basic stance of Japanese legal assistance. At the same time, this report also try to characterize legal and judicial reform in Cambodia.

2009 - 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions Words: 443 words || 
Info
4. Passoth, Jan-Hendrik. "Coding the Code of Blogging Infrastructure: The Case of RSS" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Crystal City, VA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p374174_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: As part of our contemporary set of media technologies blogs are often described as the spearhead of what will be the future of journalism (see for example Brown, 2006; Robinson, 2006) and as one major milestone to a less mass production/mass consumption oriented public sphere. While it is true that blogs give more human beings voice compared to the organized and regulated field of media production during the last decades, it is also true that they as well give other actors: search engines, aggregators, content scanners, backlink generators and other software based agency are undertaking the task of weaving the webs that make the blogosphere its spin.
All these new actors are speaking a dialect of code, that of content syndication, often just referred to as feeds. A closer look reveals that feed code - although in every case a part of the Extended Markup Language XML - actually is more like a whole family of sociolects: RSS 0.91, 1.0, 2.0, Atom. Those different markup languages are codes for writing code and like every standardized and generalized markup language readable and processable for humans and nonhumans alike. But the different dialects are a way to exclude possible actors again: RSS 1.0 is better understood by software that by human users, with RSS 2.0 it is just the opposite. Atom is the attempt to make parts of the code understandable for humans while at the same time developing a kind of secret language for machines.
In my proposed contribution for the session What is Code? What is Coding? Emerging STS approaches in studying computer code I use the case of RSS as an example to show that the difference between code and coding might be useful for abstract formal linguistic analysis, but is misleading for STS approaches, especially when used in an asymmetric way - here the abstract technical object code, there the social process of coding. Instead I will try some infrastructure inversion (Bowker & Star, 1999, 2000; Star, 1999) by sketching some elements of the genealogy of syndication technologies to show how the coding of code itself can be studied as process of setting up, using, re-using and changing a complex sociotechnical assemblage of formal standards, implemented validation and generator software, ideological statements and practical workarounds.

References
Bowker, G. C. & Star, S. L. (1999). Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. MIT Press.
Bowker, G. C. & Star, S. L. (2000). Invisible Mediators of Action: Classification and the Ubiquity of Standards. Mind.
Brown, D. (2006). Joe Blog's turn. British Journalism Review, 17(1), 15-19.
Robinson, S. (2006). Journalism and the internet. New Media and Society, 8, 5.
Star, S. (1999). The Ethnography of Infrastructure. American Behavioral Scientist, 43(3), 377-391.

2017 - AEJMC Pages: unavailable || Words: 7668 words || 
Info
5. Weber, Matthew., Kosterich, Allie. and Tikyani, Rohit. "Coding the News: The Role of Computer Code in the Distribution of News Media" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AEJMC, Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile, Chicago, IL, Aug 09, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1281621_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This article examines the role of code in the process of news distribution, and interrogates the degree to which code and algorithms are imbued with the ability to make decisions regarding the filtering and prioritizing of news, much as an editor would. Emphasis is placed specifically on the context of mobile news applications that filter news for consumers. In addressing calls to attend to the intersection of computer science and journalism, an additional goal of this article is to move the analytic lens away from the notion that code is replacing humans as producers of news and to shift towards an understanding of how code orders and communicates the news. Thus, the focus of this research is on algorithms as technological actants, filtering news based on decisions imbued into the code by human actors. An investigation of code contained in 64 open source mobile news apps is presented and the content of the code is analyzed. Findings highlight the journalistic decisions made in code and contribute to discussion surrounding the relationship between algorithmic and traditional news values.

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