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2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 29 pages || Words: 8054 words || 
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1. Dekel, Irit. "Militant Collectivism and Anonymity- the Case of the Israeli Unknown Soldier" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-11-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p106475_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The Unknown Soldier is a prominent symbolic category in the Israeli commemoration discourse. Its prominence is made by negation, particularly in poems that differentiate the Israeli remembrance practice from historical European and American practices and through a public discussion of the tension between national and individual remembrance and Israeli heroic mythology. The negation of the Unknown Soldier is a prism through which cultural strategies of remembrance and forgetting were used as a recruiting mechanism for missions of nation-building that demanded various ways of self sacrifice.
Israel originated a more extreme recruiting vigor for the livings that will be willing to sacrifice their lives on the collective altar, knowing that by doing so they win collective immortality. The ultimate recruiting power of the collective denies the individual’s name while he or she is still alive. Therefore, in order to re-gain your name you should perish or sacrifice your name (seen as a symbol of your individuality). Through this symbolic economy, the assertion in popular texts “we don’t have unknown soldiers” was directed to invent episodic memory and to create memory traces of an unclaimed experience. Thus, the Unknown Soldier was encoded in the collective memory as a referential category, the limit case of proper remembering.

The soldiers’ relations to their fellow soldiers and officers, dead or alive, are vertical until the moment of death that erases hierarchies, and makes these relationships horizontal. In the Israeli context, horizontal relationship was too important to remain in the realm of the battlefield mythology and hence the category of the friend (comrade) was invented. I will discuss its recruiting force in life oriented missions in order to show how the same mechanism of names-erasing was operative outside of the battlefield. Erasing the name while the individual is alive is not a simple act of its obliteration from collective memory. Instead, I view this erasure as a national project, which builds on negating established European nationalistic rules of remembrance and forgetting.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 17 pages || Words: 8305 words || 
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2. Shih, Miin-wen. "The Social Shaping of the Cold-War on Mobilizational Collectivism, Egalitarianism, and Maoist Mercantilist China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 10, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p103878_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The Yalta Conference marked the beginning of the creation of the post-war cold-war structure while the Korean War defined the boundaries of the US and USSR spheres, the interstate relationship and balance of power in East Asia.

It was in this geopolitical setting, the US help to re-industrialize Japan, and made Japan the regional center of accumulation on one hand, and blockaded the PRC and forced China to become a Maoist ‘mercantilist’ state, which de-linked from the division of labor in the capitalist world-system. It was also in the same geopolitical setting, China was pushed by the US and pulled by the USSR to form a close Sino-Soviet alliance and accelerated industrialization of heavy industry in the centralized First Five-Year Plan by importation of Soviet technology and Soviet technical support of engineers and managers on one hand, and proceed land reform and collectivization on the other.

The Sino-Soviet conflicts left no choice for China but to adopt the further self-reliance policy, which took the form of decentraization, large-scale mass mobilization, collectivism, radical utopianism, and absolute egalitarianism.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 29 pages || Words: 8923 words || 
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3. Koch, Pamela. "Conflict, Collectivism and Confucianism: A Study of Interpersonal Relationships in Hong Kong Organizations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p14066_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The study of Chinese organizational communication has overwhelmingly focused on harmony and cooperation with classical Confucian beliefs and collectivistic values posited as the sources of these assumed cultural traits. Unfortunately, there is a relative dearth of research on any conflict and competition that might occur and the underlying assumption is that conflict, competition, and self-serving behaviors are minimal. This research is an attempt to look at “everyday practices” in the Hong Kong organizational world to examine these assumptions within the context of real organizations. Forty-two Hong Kong residents were interviewed about their interpersonal relationships in the workplace. The accounts my informants provided diverged greatly from the classical Confucian collectivist assumptions. While some harmony and cooperative behaviors were reported, the overwhelming number of informants spoke of conflict and competition as common workplace behaviors. In addition, when behavioral explanations for harmony and conflict avoidance were proffered, rather than indicating they engaged in these behaviors because of any particular value placed on harmony or for the “good of the group,” informants indicated that conflict avoidance and harmony were practiced for instrumental reasons.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 41 pages || Words: 10495 words || 
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4. Cheah, Wai Hsien., Zimmerman, Rick. and Palmgreen, Philip. "Sensation Seeking, Individualism-Collectivism, Message Stimulus and Health Risk Messages: A Four-Country Study" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <PDF>. 2019-11-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p11611_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study was an effort to understand how the personality trait of sensation seeking, the cultural dimension of individualism and collectivism (I-C), and message stimulus affect the risk perceptions of college students with regards to gonorrhea infection. The above was accomplished using a 2 (HSS vs. LSS) X 2 (physical threat vs. social threat) X 2 (individualism vs. collectivism at the cultural level) X 2 (within-subject pretest vs. post-test) mixed repeated measures design conducted in four countries – Malaysia, Singapore, U.S. and England. Of the 911 college students who participated in the prescreening phase of the study, a total of 700 students completed the experiment. The results showed that the collectivistic participants had greater increase in posttest scores for perceived severity, perceived response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge about gonorrhea than individualistic participants. LSS expressed greater condom self-control than HSS. Participants exposed to the physical appeal message seemed to be able to recall the information better than participants exposed to the social appeal message. Participants from individualistic societies expressed greater perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, condom interpersonal impact and condom self-control than participants from collectivistic societies. In addition, participants from individualistic societies seemed to be able to recall the information better than participants from collectivistic societies.

2006 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 33 words || 
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5. Yoon, Kwang-Il. "Political Attribution: Individualism and Collectivism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, <Not Available>. 2019-11-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p139572_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper tests the hypothesis that citizens in collectivistic countries are more likely to attribute their personal grievances to government than citizens in individualistic countries and this relationship is moderated by symbolic politics.

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