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2005 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 34 words || 
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1. O'Loughlin, Paula. "News as Comedy or Politics as Comedy: Civic Cues in Comedy Central's Daily Show" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 07, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-08-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p85440_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper presents a content analysis of the civic cues offered in the 'news' programming most watched by voters 30 and younger today, Jon Stewart's Daily Show, during the 10 weeks preceding Election 2004.

2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 36 pages || Words: 10427 words || 
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2. Feldman, Lauren. and Young, Danna. "Late-Night Comedy as a Gateway to Traditional News: An Analysis of Time Trends in News Attention among Late-Night Comedy Viewers during the 2004 Presidential Primaries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-08-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p152480_index.html>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: This paper challenges the assumption, advanced in recent survey data published by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, that young audiences are abandoning traditional news as a source of election information in favor of late-night comedy programs. Instead, we offer evidence, consistent with Baum’s “gateway” hypothesis (2003), that exposure to late-night comedy increases attention paid to the presidential campaign in national network and cable news. Insofar as campaign news provides the context for the political jokes featured in late-night comedy monologues, late-night television appears to serve a socializing function, such that it motivates viewers to pay more focused attention to the campaign in hard news sources—perhaps so that they feel better equipped to enjoy the comedy. This analysis uses data collected via the National Annenberg Election Survey (NAES) during the 2004 presidential primary season, between October 30, 2003 and June 4, 2004. As hypothesized, cross-sectional results demonstrate that viewers of late-night comedy pay more attention to the campaign in national and network cable news than non-viewers, controlling for a variety of factors. Time series analysis also reveals that the rate of increase in hard news attention over the course of the primary season is greater for viewers of late-night comedy than for non-viewers.

2008 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 20 pages || Words: 9055 words || 
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3. kuipers, giselinde. "Comedy and Hegemony: Television Buyers and the Import of American comedy in four European Countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, Jul 31, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p240712_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Comedy is generally considered the hardest genre to export, because of its cultural and linguistic specificity. However, American television comedies have managed, with various degrees of suc-ces, to penetrate the television landscapes of most European countries. This paper analyzes the import of American television comedy in France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Poland, focusing on the role and position of central figures in the import of television programming: television buy-ers. Using television import figures as well as interview data, this paper will address, first, the po-sition of TV buyers, mediating between the international field of television exchange and national media contexts. Second, it will address the professional ethos of these television buyers. Ameri-can television import patterns are strongly dependent on the media landscape of a specific coun-try and TV network, much less on cultural similarity between a country and the US. However, while cultural differences may not have a very large impact on cross-national differences in im-port patterns, there are cultural barriers to import: some comedies are “too American” for Euro-pean audiences. Such cultural barriers, I will argue, tend to be the blind spot of cosmopolitan professionals like television buyers.

2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 25 pages || Words: 6947 words || 
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4. Hoffman, Lindsay. and Thomson, Tiffany. "The Effect of Late-Night TV Comedy Viewing on Adolescents’ Civic Participation: Political Efficacy as a Mediating Mechanism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p171537_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Political pundits, parents, and scholars alike have expressed concern about youth attention to late-night political comedy shows, such as The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, suggesting that such viewing is deleterious for an active and efficacious citizenry. At the same time, as civic participation declines among adults, it appears to be growing among adolescents. This study assessed the effects of various types of television viewing on civic participation among high school students in a midwestern U.S. urban school district. Results demonstrate that viewing late-night TV had a positive and significant effect on civic participation, and this relationship was mediated by political efficacy. The same did not hold true for viewing national or local TV news. Moreover, viewing these late-night shows was not correlated with political cynicism—a relationship found in previous studies. Implications for the study of late-night TV content and further applications to the study of political socialization are discussed.

2006 - American Studies Association Words: 494 words || 
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5. Strunk, Mary Elizabeth. "Vinyl Blues: Documenting Transnational PVC Poisonings in "Blue Vinyl: A Toxic Comedy"" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association, <Not Available>. 2019-08-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p113902_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The film Blue Vinyl: A Toxic Comedy (2002) chronicles with wry humor Judith Helfand’s investigation of the toxic life cycle of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), an investigation sparked by the discovery that vinyl siding on her parents’ home may have contributed to someone else’s toxic exposure. Helfand’s inquiry takes her from suburban Merrick, Long Island to Lake Charles, Louisiana, where vinyl fabricators and manufacturers, and the largely poor and black residents near a the “vinyl capital of the world,” have been irreversibly harmed by dioxins released at the time of PVC’s manufacture and when it is burned. The “comedy” of the documentary lies in Helfand’s interactions with prevaricating representatives of the Vinyl Institute. It’s also in the slab of blue vinyl siding that is Helfand’s constant companion as she traces the materiality of PVC’s hazards from Merrick to Lake Charles and ultimately to Venice, Italy, where 31 former executives from a PVC-producing company stand trial for manslaughter.

In 1972, Italy’s vinyl industry suppressed a study demonstrating the clear link between high doses of polyvinyl chloride and cancerous tumors. The Venice trial revealed that this study had been shared with vinyl plant owners in the U.S., on the condition that they sign an agreement to keep the findings under wraps. It was only after four workers in a U.S.-based B.F. Goodrich plant died of the same, rare angiosarcoma that the vinyl workers’ trade association began to insist on new plant safety standards to drastically reduce vinyl-chloride exposure.

Unfortunately, improved safety standards inside the plants did not erase the hazards of vinyl chloride for either consumers or workers—and certainly not for the communities that host the plants. Helfand uses the tools of activist documentary to put PVC on trial, amassing evidence in the form of contaminated air and groundwater samples, but also in the form of testimony from individuals who have lost health, homes, and family members to vinyl chloride contamination. Filmed over five years, Blue Vinyl evolves into a collaborative effort by a filmmaker and her subjects to explicate the biopolitical implications of events that could be mistaken for mere individual tragedies. By connecting the dots between a “cost-saving” building material purchased by a middle-class American family in the Northeast and the damaged bodies of vinyl workers in Louisiana and abroad, the documentary makes visible the global connectivity of individual bodies and communities, a connectivity that is at once most and least evident in relation to toxic exposures. The assembled testimony of Helfand’s subjects requires viewers to re-evaluate what is presumed seeable or knowable, especially the divide between contaminated or “exposed” bodies and uncontaminated or “safe” bodies.

The documentary apparatus as Judith Helfand imagines it is a technology for revising and re-vision-ing private grief into public grievance, and mourning into mobilizing. By framing the personal as the biopolitical, toxic exposure can no longer be regarded as a private tragedy. It is a mode of connectivity and a condition of possibility for the formation of a global public.

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