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2008 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 20 pages || Words: 6023 words || 
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1. Bingham, Shawn. and Hernandez, Alex. "Laughing Matters: The Stand-Up Comedian as Social Observer, Teacher and Conduit of the Sociological Imagination" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, Jul 31, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p242264_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Much of the sociological curriculum often represents society as tragedy. This article explores the incorporation of a society as comedy component in introductory courses at two institutions using the sociological insight and social critique of comedians. A general discussion of parallels between the comedic eye and the sociological imagination is followed by specific steps for locating, selecting and incorporating comedic clips into various courses. Using comparisons between experimental and control groups, as well as student questionnaires, we found that using comedians to model sociological perspectives increased student ability to apply course concepts, decreased student anxiety when tackling new concepts, and engaged a broader number of students during class discussion. We conclude with discussion of challenges specific to these methods – language use and controversial comedians – as well as the broader need to learn from figures who have been historically successful at engaging the public on issues of social importance.

2016 - The 62nd Annual Meeting of the Renaissance Society of America Words: 154 words || 
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2. Luskin, Fern. "Two Comedians and a Courtesan in Giovanni Bellini's all'antica Comedy, The Feast of the Gods" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The 62nd Annual Meeting of the Renaissance Society of America, Park Plaza Hotel and Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA, <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1049976_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Bellini’s The Feast of the Gods is a comic myth based on a humorously erotic story told by Ovid in his Fasti, in which Priapus tries to rape a sleeping woman at a Bacchic festival, but is thwarted when Silenus’ ass awakens her with its loud bray. Painted during the Renaissance revival of ancient comedy, it stars two well-known comics and features a beautiful courtesan with a gift for sardonic wit, as will be revealed in this paper. One of the comedians, who habitually played the role of a peasant, is in the guise of the peasant god, Priapus. A risqué buffoon, famous for cross-dressing, is his antagonist, Silenus, who is draped in an effeminate garment. The courtesan portrays a comical mythological being. The clue to the identities of these figures lies in their attributes, which pun on their surnames, stage names, and/or nicknames, mentioned in various texts and documents.

2010 - NCA 96th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 7347 words || 
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3. Smith, J.. "Constructing the First Black President: Black Comedians' Use of Burke's Comic Frame" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 96th Annual Convention, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Nov 13, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p426433_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Actors portraying the first black president are cited by pundits as important precursors that allowed Barack Obama to become president. While most pundits cite performances that transcend race, this study focuses on black comedians performing black stereotypes in their depictions of the first black president to highlight the inconsistencies of society. Burke's (1984a) comic frame provides the lens to examine how comedians pushed audiences away from stereotypes and toward a more accepting view of society.

2017 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 244 words || 
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4. Kunze, Peter. "Suck It Up, Buttercup: Conservative Commentators as Comedians" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Hyatt Regency Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1262472_index.html>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: Studies of American humor have largely privileged the work of comedians who identify as progressive (i.e., John Limon, Rebecca Krefting), but in recent years, conservative pundits have embraced trolling as a comic mode for engaging in public discourse. British gadfly Milo Yiannopoulos launched a college speaking tour termed “Dangerous Faggot,” while Meghan McCain proudly joked last month, “I get all my strength from drinking the tears of liberals. I love that everyone is having so much anxiety.” While we often talk about stand-up comedians as public intellectuals, we have seen the emergence of conservative public “intellectuals” who ostensibly operate as stand-up comedians. Countering the liberal tradition of punching up against oppressors, these individuals use humor as a way of maintaining the status quo by employing insult as a silencing mechanism. Playing upon the fears and ignorance of their audience, they adapt a common sense logic that obscures the inherent ideological nature of reason and foster a culture where truth itself is relative and suspect. This paper, therefore, observes the rise of this trend from hypermasculine libertarian stand-up by comics like Doug Stanhope, Bill Burr, and Joe Rogan through the caustic, scathing “humor” employed by Yiannopoulos, Ann Coulter, Rush Limbaugh, and even Donald Trump himself. Such a study aims to continue work by scholar Paul Lewis in drawing greater attention to the dangers of laughter and comedy in perpetuating a stultifying hegemony, but also to explore the mechanisms and logics of the conservative star-making industry.

2009 - 94th Annual Convention Words: 122 words || 
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5. Jones, Regina. "Polishing the Sapphire: U. S. Black Male Comedians Refashion a Working-class Stereotype of a Black Woman" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 94th Annual Convention, Hilton Cincinnati Netherland Plaza, Cincinnati, Ohio, Sep 30, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p377643_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In comic drag comedians, Martin Lawrence (Sheneneh Jenkins in the series Martin), Jamie Foxx (Wanda in the series In Living Color), and Eddie Murphy (Rasputia Latimore in the film Norbit) promote, on a global scale, an updated version of a beleaguered, working-class, dark complexioned Black woman as an urban dwelling, unattractive, loud talking, love starved, pugilist ready to take on the world as she tries to claim a man. Their portrayals of turn of the century—twenty to twenty-first centuries—Black women entertains millions while simultaneously reinforcing and reworking the old Sapphire stereotype. This presentation will examine image, voice, characterization and the politics of humor contained in their stereotypical performances that reinforce a global image of some African American women as Sapphires.

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