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2017 - ARNOVA's 46th Annual Conference Words: 102 words || 
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1. Jang, Hee Soun., Sun, Jingran. and Valero, Jesus. "Exploring Factors Affecting Nonprofit Commercialization: Does a Competition Affect Nonprofits’ Commercialization?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ARNOVA's 46th Annual Conference, Amway Grand Plaza Hotel, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Nov 14, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1284850_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The commercialization of nonprofit sectors have been extensively studied, a few issues, nonetheless, remain unaddressed. Although resource dependency theory and competition are considered two primary mechanisms that explain the commercialization, the former only offers a limited explanation and the latter was not tested with proper measurement. This study explores two research questions by using NCCS nonprofit finance data: 1) To what extent are NPOs commercialized, and 2) what factors affecting nonprofit’s commercial activities? The purpose of research is to offer a more comprehensive model, by examining resource dependency theory, and competition among social services nonprofit sectors with more generalizable data.

2010 - SASE Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 242 words || 
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2. Stinchcombe, Arthur. "Tatar Commercial Diaspora as Carrier of Commercial Religious, Educational, and Political Institutions Among Nations." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SASE Annual Conference, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA, Jun 24, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p408073_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Abstract, Arthur Stinchcombe, “Tatar commercial diaspora as carrier of commercial, religious, educational, and political institutions among nations.”


Stinchcombe
Institutions are complex mixtures of culture, routines, decision-making, delivering services, recruitment and training of elites, members, workers, and often clients. People learn to build institutions and carry them elsewhere by embodying parts of such functioning mixtures. The paper argues that the communities of the Volga Tatár commercial diaspora created local variants of scientific, religious, governmental, educational, and commercial institutions in regular massive exchanges with other parts of the diaspora, creating islands of bilingual complete variants in many places near the Volga commercial (and eventually industrial complex). This cultural and structural system of strong institutional variants introduced many “modernizing” instituions throughout Eastern Russia, Southern Siberia and Central Asia. It was routinely bilingual in Russian, Tatar, Central Asian Turkic and Iranic languages, and formed a diplomatic, reform and, institutional link between Russian conquerers and the various Muslim institutions of Central Asia and Siberia, including their own powerful province in the middle Volga region.

2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 34 pages || Words: 9535 words || 
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3. Bearce, David. and Omori, Sawa. "How do Commercial Institutions Promote Peace: Is it Commercial Integration, Institutional Effects, or Both?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p73403_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The commercial institutional peace research program has provided empirical evidence that such institutions help reduce the incidence of militarized inter-state conflict. But it remains unclear how commercial institutions produce their observed pacific effect. We examine empirically three different arguments that might explain the commercial institutional peace. First, commercial institutions increase the economic opportunity costs of war for the state. Second, some commercial institutions provide information about other states' military capabilities, which may make bargaining for peace more efficient. Third, many commercial institutions bring high-level state leaders together on a regular basis, building trust to overcome the commitment problem in international bargaining. Our statistical results show the greatest empirical support for the third explanation: commercial institutions with more organs for high-level state leaders demonstrate a substantively strong and statistically significant effect in reducing the outbreak of military conflict. We find some limited support for the second explanation, and no support at all for the first explanation.

2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 2075 words || 
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4. Meade, Thomas. "Commercials and Crawls with Competing Appeals: How Does an Aversive Crawl Affect an Appetitive Commercial?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p487034_index.html>
Publication Type: Extended Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper will use self-report and the psychophysiological measure of facial EMG at the corrugator and zygomatic muscles to test how running a news crawl with a competing appeal under a television commercial affects feelings toward a brand. News crawls with stories employing either an appetitive appeal or an aversive appeal will be run under a television commercial employing the opposite appeal in order to test how a competing appeal may affect the image of a brand.

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