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2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 26 pages || Words: 10158 words || 
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1. Williams, Michelle. "Democratic Communists: the South African Communist Party and the Communist Party of India (Marxist)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-04-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p107792_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the ostensible victory of world capitalism, viable alternatives to the IMF’s and World Bank’s development agenda seem increasingly difficult to envision. The hegemony of a neo-liberal model of development that seeks economic growth over redistribution has proven a formidable challenge to envisioning alternatives that emphasize economic and social justice, environmental sustainability, and the empowerment of ordinary people. At least two communist parties, however, can lay claim to more hopeful and creative attempts to effect transformative projects from below: the South African Communist Party (SACP) and the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) in Kerala. But why and how are the SACP and CPI(M) drawn to navigate paths between social democracy and Soviet-style state socialism that places participatory democracy at the center of their socialist visions?
In this paper I explore the recent histories of the SACP and CPI(M) in an effort to explain the unique trajectories of these two Parties. Throughout the 1990s, both the SACP and CPI(M) have commanded popular bases and worked to achieve radical transformation through and within the institutions of parliamentary democracy. Both have understood democratic socialism to entail both a sensitivity to local conditions and a pluralistic, participatory democratic conception of the political. Despite these similar commitments, the SACP and CPI(M) have tended to emphasize different strategies and practices in their efforts to transform society from below. In particular, the SACP has tended to emphasize mass-mobilizing strategies and practices, while the CPI(M) has given much emphasis to grassroots-organizing strategies and practices.

2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 35 pages || Words: 10292 words || 
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2. Pop-Eleches, Grigore. "Which Past Matters? Communist and Pre-Communist Legacies in Post-Communist Regime Change" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-04-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p40464_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Contrary to the early optimistic expectations of a uniform transition from Communism to Western-style democracies, the changes of the last fifteen years suggest a growing divergence among the former Communist “comrades.” The paper uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative evidence to trace the different regime trajectories of post-communist countries to differences in Leninist and pre-Communist legacies.
The first part of the paper puts the ex-communist countries in comparative perspective (especially with respect to Western Europe and Latin America) and finds that a distinct Leninist legacy is still noticeable in the prevalence of non-civic popular attitudes, the weakness of civil society organizations and the instability and shallow institutionalization of political parties, and an overall democracy deficit.
The second part of the paper analyzes the roots of the remarkable diversity of post-communist political trajectories despite the shared experience of several decades of Leninism. This diversity is due to the survival of several important and strongly correlated cross-country legacy differences with respect to cultural/religious traditions, degrees of modernization and state and nation building challenges. These historical legacies date back to the pre-communist period and have proven to be remarkably resilient despite half a century of Communist economic, social and political experiments. The paper argues that the failure of communist policies to reverse (or at least to reduce significantly) the great intra-regional differences in economic and political development is due to the neglect and/or reinforcement of traditional cultural patterns and ethnic tensions, which were further complicated by the economic distortions of communist industrialization. In the process, communist rule produced societies with a unique and highly uneven developmental profile, which combines traditional and modern elements. Therefore, under the veneer of large-scale modernization and industrialization the former communist countries were still divided by fundamental cross-country differences in culture, social norms and power relations. Judging by the regime transformations of the past 16 years, the persistence of these long-term historical legacy differences has undermined the democratic promise inherent in the region’s rapid communist-era modernization progress and is likely to continue to do so for the foreseeable future.

2008 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 23 pages || Words: 10238 words || 
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3. Fazekas, Erzsebet. "Unpacking an Institutional Vacuum: The Communist Origins of Post-Communist Civil Society and Nonprofit Organizations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, Jul 31, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/OCTET-BINARY>. 2019-04-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p239967_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: A raison d'être of post-communist civil society aid projects was that civil society and the nonprofit sector need to be built out of scratch and be insulated from communist legacies. I argue that neither civil society, nor nonprofits emerged out of an institutional vacuum after the fall of communism. I assess the scholarly literature on the communists’ treatment of what is identified today as civil society and nonprofit organizations (voluntary associations and foundations) in post-war Hungary. I bring together arguments from studies of communism and post-communist transitions to re-evaluate our knowledge about the political and economic climate and their effect on civil society and its organizations in Hungary until 1989. I identify three institutional origins of post-communist civil society and nonprofits under state socialism: social organizations, associations that were state-controlled and structured into mass organizations; the second economy, the state-sanctioned sphere of private economic activities pursued outside the formal socialist state economy; and the second society, the informal and clandestine sphere of political activity pursued outside the institutions of the party-state. Post-communist civil society and its constituent nonprofits have roots in the capitalist transformation and political liberalization that grew potent under late socialism and within the communist organizational apparatus.

2018 - 89th Annual SPSA Conference Words: 121 words || 
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4. Gasemyr, Hans. and Midtbo, Tor. "What do China’s Communists Think? Analysis of the Attitudinal Effects of Chinese Communist Membership" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 89th Annual SPSA Conference, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, LA, <Not Available>. 2019-04-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1322892_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Although public opinion- and survey-related research dealing with China and Chinese respondents has been flourishing over many years, relatively little has been done to uncover the distinct attitudes of the members of China’s Communist Party (CCP). In this paper we build on the socialization thesis and investigate to what extent CCP members do express distinctively clear and similar attitudes, compared to other Chinese, on a broader set of socioeconomic issues. We base our analysis on three rounds of nationally representative surveys that were conducted in China in 2004, 2009 and 2014, for which Party members were sampled as part of the general and random (GPS) based sampling. We employ recently developed statistical methods to obtain more accuracy regarding the membership effects.

2013 - Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies 45th Annual Convention Words: 99 words || 
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5. Grybkauskas, Saulius. "How Lithuanian Communists overcame Stalin? The Roots of Communist Secession from CPSU in Lithuania in 1989" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies 45th Annual Convention, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, <Not Available>. 2019-04-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p653487_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: According Stalin the Communist organizations of the republics should be a “glue” against neutralizing formal constitutional right and possible choice of republics to secede from the Soviet Union. The Lithuanian Communist party was the first to split from the CPSU at a time when the Soviet Union still very much existed and this political step enabled Lithuanian nomenklatura to join the National movement and participate in political life after the state independence was established . The paper examines roots of this secession by exploring nomenklatura networks, Soviet centre-republic relations and national identity of titular nomenklatura.

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