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2009 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 20 pages || Words: 7809 words || 
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1. Goble, Lisbeth. "College Attributes and Degree Completion: Does Degree Completion Depend on which Four-year College Students Attend?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 07, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p308660_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Although the status-attainment model assumes that individual attributes determine educational attainment, sociologists increasingly recognize the influence of institutional factors. Incorporating aspects of sociologists' institutional model, accountability advocates urge students to choose colleges with higher graduation rates. Merging institutional data on four-year colleges (IPEDS) and longitudinal national data on students (NELS), we analyze to what extent individual degree completion is explained by college degree completion rates, after controlling for individual attributes and other institutional attributes, and whether these relationships hold for different groups of students.

We find that although degree completion rates are related to individual achievement, this relationship is far from perfect. Many high achievers are not completing degrees and a majority of low achievers do. Furthermore, we find evidence that the relationship between institutional graduation rate and individual completion is nonlinear and primarily at the top of the scale. Multivariate analysis indicates that the relationship between “college graduation rate" and individuals' degree outcomes is greatly diminished after controls, and exists for only one subgroup of students. In the abstract, contrary to the assumptions of the accountability advocates, our findings suggest that college graduation rate often has no advantages for predicting individual outcomes for the vast majority of students.

2007 - American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Words: 248 words || 
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2. Hall, Philip. and White, Roger. "Completion of pre-pharmacy requirements at community colleges (CC): what is the association with PharmD GPA?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Disney’s Yacht & Beach Club Resort, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, Jul 14, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p196181_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Barron’s Profiles ranks the competitiveness of undergraduate (UG) institutions; however, community colleges (CC) are not included. Previously, we found that UG-GPA and PCAT were associated with PharmD GPA (COP-GPA) in each didactic year (P1-P3); however, only UG-GPA and UG ranking were associated for P4. Since some applicants complete pre-pharmacy requirements at CC, we evaluated UG ranking and CC attendance as a predictor of performance in a PharmD program.
METHODS: We evaluated relationships between UG ranking and GPAs of 2003-06 PharmD graduates. UG institutions at which these graduates completed pre-pharmacy courses were categorized and ranked as follows: most competitive (MC=5), highly competitive (HC=4), very competitive (VC=3), competitive (C=2), less competitive (LC=1) and community college (CC=0). Relationships between UG-GPA, PCAT, UG ranking and PharmD GPA were assessed by univariate and multivariate regression. RESULTS: Records were available for 191 students (MC=2, HC=79, VC=33, C=43, LC=10, CC=24) from 67 institutions. Mean P4 GPAs were: MC=3.6, HC=3.4, VC=3.2, C=3.3, LC=2.7, CC=3.1). By univariate analysis, UG-GPA(p<0.0001), PCAT (p<0.0001) and UG ranking (p=0.0003-0.0069) were associated with GPA in each year (P1-P4). R2 values for P1-P3 were consistent for UG-GPA (0.328-0.355), PCAT (0.248-0.285) and UG ranking (0.038-0,047), but lower for UG-GPA (0.016) and PCAT (0.126) and higher for UG ranking (0.069) for P4. Multivariate analysis found only UG-GPA and PCAT significant for P1-P3 GPA. In P4, UG ranking and CC attendance were also significant.
CONCLUSIONS: When UG-GPA and PCAT are used, UG ranking and CC attendance was associated with PharmD GPA only in the P4 year.

2004 - American Sociological Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 5766 words || 
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3. Hodge, David. and Gillespie, David. "Phrase Completion Scales: A Better Beasurement Method than Likert Scales" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p108661_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Valid and reliable measures are fundamental to advancing social science. Phrase completion scales were designed to provide enhanced psychometrics compared to Likert scales by more closely conforming to foundational measurement and statistical assumptions. This paper reports the first direct comparison of the two types of scales. Responses to Likert formatted items and comparable phrase completions items were elicited from 134 graduate students. An examination of written comments, Cronbach’s alphas, inter-item correlations, factor scores, and SEM coefficients indicate that items constructed in the phrase completion format yield higher levels of validity and reliability relative to Likert constructed items. The advantages of phrase completion scales may be particularly pronounced when measuring attitudes that fall at all points along the underlying continuum.

2005 - American Sociological Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 5284 words || 
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4. Rosenbaum, James. and Stephan, Jennifer. "College Degree Completion: Institutional Effects and Student Propensity" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p19954_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Do college types affect degree completion? This study extends Dougherty’s (1994) conclusion that community colleges reduce students’ degree completion rates relative to four-year colleges. Examining more recent data (NELS), more detailed college types and effects for different types of students, this study finds that some previously neglected institutional types have significant effects, and different institutional types have different effects on students with high, medium, and low propensity to complete degrees. While generally confirming the negative effects of community colleges, we find this institutional distinction is not significant for the lowest and highest propensity students. In addition, we find that for-profit and non-profit two-year colleges show some significant affects among mid-propensity students. It is also noteworthy that private four-year colleges offer a significant advantage for low-propensity students. These findings could be useful for students’ college choices and for policy-makers’ assessments of the effectiveness of different college types.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 6340 words || 
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5. Stephan, Jennifer. and Rosenbaum, James. "Do Some Colleges Improve Students’ Chances of Completing Degrees? How Propensity Scores Change the Question" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 11, 2006 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p103010_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Do college types affect degree completion? While past work has considered the effects of four-year versus two-year public colleges, this study uses a new method to consider this question and an alternative one. Using propensity score methods forces us to consider whether students at these two types of colleges are comparable. The analysis of kernel density distributions and limited common support in the propensity analysis both suggest that they are not comparable, and therefore examining differences in attainment rates may be misleading. In effect, propensity methods suggest the question is problematic. However, analyses indicate that private two-year colleges are a viable alternative for many students attending community colleges—the students attending these types of schools are similar. Further, using multiple methods (logistic regression, propensity score stratification, and propensity score adjustment regression), we find a positive effect of attending a private two-year college on degree completion. Institutions appear to matter for degree completion, but not all college types are viable options for all students. These findings could be useful for students' college choices and for policy-makers' assessments of the effectiveness of different college types.

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