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2011 - UCEA Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 1509 words || 
1. Fuller, Ed. and Young, Michelle. "Principal Working Conditions: Under what conditions do principals work and how do these conditions affect turnover and outcomes?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the UCEA Annual Convention, Westin Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, Nov 16, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The growing body of evidence on the role principals play in school improvement and student achievement coupled with evidence of the extremely high turnover rates of principals, points to the need to better understand the conditions under which principals work, how these conditions differ across schools, and how these conditions influence principal attrition and turnover. This paper presents the findings from and exploratory study on principal working conditions and argues that additional work and policy attention is needed in this area.

2017 - DSI Annual Meeting Words: 47 words || 
2. Song, Hua., Lu, Qiang. and Yu, Kangkang. "Which Condition Enhances SMEs Financing Outcome: Cases and Necessary Condition" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the DSI Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington DC, <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: Through case studies, we find that communication, innovation and coordination are necessary during supply chain finance. Moreover, through necessary condition analysis, we also find that the three capabilities from the dyad sides are separately necessary for reaching a certain desired levels of lending performance in buyer-supplier relationship.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 6899 words || 
3. Boshers, Robyn. "Dynamic Ideology: Economic and Political Conditions as Barriers and Enabling Conditions for Challenges to the American Dream" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 10, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper explores notions of the American dream ideology, particularly its embracing of a degree of inequality in principle, and argues that it is not the static constant that academics and popular commentators have often taken it as. Rather, I argue that it is a dynamic concept that is continually questioned or reaffirmed and renegotiated with economic and historical shifts, and I document some examples of such shifts and their effect on the dominant ideology. I then explore changes in the political realm, particularly high levels of inequality in forms of political participation, what implications they hold for the American dream, and if such changes have led to challenges to or renegotiations of the ideology. Although it seems that high levels of inequality in both the economic and political realms should challenge certain tenets of the American dream, in many cases this has not occurred. I identify five major barriers that inhibit actual inequality from challenging the benefits of inequality in principle, which reveal the contradictions inherent in the American dream and the complicated ways in which Americans attempt to resolve these contradictions. However, despite these barriers, ideas do sometimes change, and I explore the possibilities that would enable such change.
Supporting Publications:
Supporting Document

2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 596 words || 
4. El Muhammady, Fauzanah. "The Condition of Educational Quality Of Indonesia’s Compulsory Schooling: The Analysis of Inputs Quality Condition Of Primary And Secondary Schools" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examined the condition of educational quality of Indonesia’s compulsory schooling through the analysis of inputs quality condition of primary and secondary schools. This study analyzed the quality of input indicators (e.g. the availability of relevant textbooks, teacher’s quality and distribution, and school facilities), the change of the indicators before and after 1990s, and the influence of input indicators to the quality of primary and secondary schools. Indonesian government has been working for years on how to improve the quality of the education in order to produce better outputs. However, until recent years, the output indicators -such as students’ academic achievement and the level of school achievement in the primary and secondary schools- have presented insignificant improvement in score of some particular subjects.
This study used methodology of qualitative that based on literature reviews that referred to the data and information concerning with the input and output indicators that was collected from National Plan of Action: Indonesia’s of Education for All 2003-2015, Ministry of National Education, Indonesia education and human resources sector review Volume I and II (USAID) and UNESCO.
The results showed that the condition of educational quality in Indonesia in the level of primary and secondary education has presented production function mechanism that was very effective and useful to measure the relationship between resources inputs and students’ performance.
However, the study found that the condition of input indicators quality in the level of primary and secondary school in Indonesia before and after 1990s has shown a small improvement. Even though the quality was focused on the inputs indicators, the indicator outputs have shown a small improvement in particular subjects. Furthermore, there is still no patent standard to determine educational quality in Indonesia in terms of inputs, outputs, and outcomes in education itself. This circumstance becomes a puzzle whether the input indicators strongly influence the quality of education itself. The exploration and analysis of input indicators in the primary and secondary schools before and after 1990s above has presented how inputs indicators have still unclear interconnection and correlation to determine the achievement of better outcomes in education.
Also, it is found that there is still lack of completed data and information, particularly concerning with the quality of input and output indicators, students’ achievement, and school level achievement that provided by government to explain the real condition of the quality of compulsory schooling. These findings indicate that there is still weakness of data and information management to provide determinant aspects of educational quality in compulsory schooling. Data and information are the two most important aspects that should be taken into account, particularly the specific data that informs the real condition of input and output indicators development in compulsory education. A completed data can assist policy makers to measure the specific standards that should be achieved in improving the educational quality compulsory education. Particularly in the aspect of input indicators, it can assist government to achieve the good standards of textbooks availability, teachers’ quality and distribution, and school facilities in the future.
The implication of this study to the field of education is the mechanism of input and output is very effective and useful to assist government to make policy that is related to educational quality improvement in the level of primary and secondary education. This study is also giving implication to the sector of educational research in exploring whether there is a strong correlation and cohesion of the quality of inputs indicators that determine the process and final products of compulsory education.

Keywords: educational quality, input indicators, textbooks, teachers’ quality and distribution, school facilities, primary and secondary schools.

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